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R E P O R T ^ 4-^-^-^ /— ^ 



RATIO 



f 



/ 



P BIRD 



IN THE 



SPRING AND AUTUMN OF 1880. 



BY 



N A. HAEVIE BEOWN, F.E.S.E., F.Z.S., 
JOHN COEDEAUX, and P. M. C. KEEMODE. 



LONDON: 
SONNENSCHEIN & ALLEN, 15, PATERNOSTER SQUARE. 

1881. 



Price Two Shillings. 



204, 



<l 



ft, 



PREFACE. 



The following Report contains a Summary of the 
investigations of a Committee appointed by the Britisli 
Association for the Advancement of Science at Swansea 
in 1880, an Abstract of which will be presented to the 
Association at its next Meeting. 

The Returns relating to Scotland have been arranged 
by Mr. Harvie-Brown ; those for the East Coast of 
England, by Mr. Cordeaux ; and the West Coast of 
England, by Mr. Philip Kermode. 







^cov*^^^^^^'^^' 



KEPOET 



ON 



THE MIGMIATION OF BIRDS 



IN THE 



SPEING AND AUTUMN OF 1880. 



" 1 am fixing coiTespondents in every corner of ihese uurthern regions, like so 
many pickets and outposts; so that scarcely a Wren or a Tit shall be able to pass 
from York to Canada but I shall get intelligence of it." — Alexander Wilson, 
in 1808. (Vide Constable's Edition, 1831, p. xlix.) 



EAST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 

Iceland and Faroe. — Schedules, letters of instruction, and 
additional remarks were forwarded through Mr. Alexander 
Buchan (Secretary, Scottish Meteorological Society, Edinburgh), 
to three stations, two of which, Stykkisholm and Reykavik, are 
in Iceland, and one at Thorshavn in Faroe. A fourth more 
northern station is secured at Fair Island for 1881, Mr. William 
Lawrence having kindly undertaken the work.* Our Faroe 
station has failed us this year, but we hope better things from it 
next. 

* At a later date I received a letter (dated 17th March) from Mr. Lawrence, 
containing a few items of interest. During the week previous, "A number 
of Swans took shelter at Fair Isle, and a large flock of common Black Crows, 
with a few Jackdaws amongst them. The Hooded Crow is the common one 
here, and we never have the Black Crow here unless after, or during, gales 
of wind. Puffins and Guillemots arrived somewhat later this season, and a 
large increase appeared in the number of Gulls. LaiDwings apx^eared, and 
one Coot was caught in a very disabled condition. Large flocks of Snow- 
birds are seen here. They came very early in winter, but disappeared again 
till now, when they have returned. A large flock of Wild Geese arrived 
here on the 14th inst. We do not often see them here. Four Swans were 
caught ; the largest weighed twenty pounds, and the others from that down 
to sixteen pounds." 

B 



2 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

Printed schedules, letters of instructions, and additional 
remarks were forwarded to twenty- six stations on the East Coast 
of Scotland and the Shetland and Orkney Islands, making, with 
the Iceland and Faroe stations, thirty-nine in all for 1880. With 
Fair Isle for 1881 we shall have forty stations. 

Eight stations on the East Scottish coasts retm*ned filled-in 
schedules, against thirteen last year, out of a total of twenty-six. 
This shows a falling off from last year. The reasons for this 
I have endeavoured to explain in my general remarks further on, 
imder both East and West Coast. Scarcity of birds is reported 
from several stations. 

The stations from which co-operation w^as asked are the 
following, commencing with the most northerly. Those from 
which returns have been received are marked with a * ; those 
which sent returns both last year and this year have two ** ; 
those which sent none last year but have done so this year have 
a f prefixed ; those which sent returns last year but none this 
year are printed in italics. In future Eeports w^e will prefix to 
each station the years in ^Yhich these stations make returns. 
A marked improvement appears, however, in the returns which 
we have received, these being fuller than in 1879. 

We would like, however, to direct the special attention of our 
reporters, both on the East and West Coasts, to the desirability 
of recording exactly the directions of flight of the birds observed 
in every case, so far as practicable, arid to minutiae of dates, even 
of single occurrences. Let us also impress that even a single 
accurate return, or one entry only in a schedule, is often of value ; 
and even if solitary occurrences of birds take place at a station, 
such should be sent to me, though the schedule be otherwise a 
blank. The interest has this season been better kept up on the 
West Coast stations than at the East Coast ones, judging from 
the scarcity of returned schedules from the latter. When no 
schedules are returned, I would esteem it a great favour if the 
lighthouse-keepers would kindly drop me a post-card, stating if 
there is any reason for no returns being sent, such as pressure of 
duties, scarcity of birds, or other causes. 

In connection with the migration of 1880, I have to mention 
that considerable aid to the work has been given by Mr. James 
Hardy, of Old Cambus, Berwickshire. He writes to me (22nd 
Feb. 1881), " I have drawn out a scheme of all the memoranda 



EAST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 3 

I can find about last year's migratory birds. I only await a 
Northumberland and Berwickshire list to have it ready." Later 
I received a summary of this from Mr. Hardy, which will be found 
at the end of this East Coast of Scotland Keport. As an example 
of careful and minute field- study it is alone deserving of the 
attention of observers, and it proves valuable upon comparison 
with the other data. Those reading the lighthouse reports here 
under the species, should also compare with Mr. Hardy's local 
Berwickshire observations. I beg to propose Mr. Hardy as a 
member of our Committee. 





East Coast 


OF Scotland. 










Height of centre of 








light above water. 


4. 


'i"!' North Unst. 


. .. 


. . . 


280 ft. 


Robert Burnett. 


5. 


^Whalsey Skerries. ... 


... 


... 


145 


Neven Kerr. 


6. 


Bressay. 


... 


... 


105 




7. 


**Sumburgh Head. ... 


... 


... 


300 • 


Wm. Anderson f and 
John Wilson. 






Orkney. 






8. 


'i'=;=North Ronaldshay 






140 


John Tulloch. + 


9. 


Start Point. 






80 




10. 


^""-Auskerry. ... 






110 


John MacDonald. 


11. 


=:-Hoy Sound (Low).... 






55 


Alexander Harp. § 


12. 


Hoy Sound (High). 






115 




13. 


Can tick Head. 






115 




14. 


=:=-:= Pen tland Skerries. 


Main 


LAND. 


170 


Donald Macdonald. 


15. 


^^'Dunnet Head, Caithness. 


... 




34611 




16. 


Holborn Head. 


... 




75 




17. 


■^^Noss Head..,, 


... 




175 




18. 


=i'*Tarbet Ness, East Ross. 


... 




175 


William Davidson. 


19. 


Cromarty, East Cromarty. 




60 





I Records and Schedule datmg after 22nd Nov. were filled in by Mr. John 
Wilson. Prior to this date they were filled in by Mr. William Anderson, 
who has been since transferred to St. Abb's Head. 

I No schedule was returned, but one note upon Swans, in a letter, proves 
useful {vide Swan). " No birds struck the lights this year." 

§ Schedule returned with the remark, " Nothing of importance has been 
observed at this station during 1880." In 1879 a similar scarcity noted at 
this locality. 

II We have lost a good observer here, Mr. George Maclachlan having left. 



REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 



90. 


Chanonry Point, Elgin. ... 


... 40 ft. 




21. 


Covesea Skerries, Elgin. ... 


... 160 




2-2. 


Kinnaird Head, Aberdeen...* 


... 120 




23. 


Buchan Ness, Aberdeen. ... 


... 130 




24. 


GinUeness, Aberdeen. 


... 185 




s.-). 


Montroseness, Aberdeen. ... 


... 124 




20. 


=:-:=Bell Rock, off Fife Coast. ... 


... 93 


James Jack. 


27. 


=:'-=:=Isle of May, Firtb of Forth. 


... 240 


Joseph Agnew. 


28. 


*Inoh Keith, Firth of Forth. 


... 220 


Robert Grierson 


29. 


St. Abbs Head, Berwick. 


... 2241 





I am also indebted to many other persons for interesting notes 
from various localities, bearing upon the subject of migration. 
A selection of these I will take notice of in the following report 
sej)arately, under the head '' Notes,''' as I consider it advisable to 
keep the one set of observations apart from the other. Further 
notice of similar observations will be found in my " Third Report 
on Scottish Ornithology," now i^reparing for press and partly read 
to the Natural History Society of Glasgow, on Jan. 25th, 1881, 
being a continuation of Reports read to the same Society, in 1880 
and 1879, and relating to 1878-79, 1879-80. Many data will be 
found in these Reports having close and intimate connection with 
the Migration Reports proper. 

As nearly as can be ascertained, notes have been kept by our 
east-coast reporters upon nine species of waterfowl and thirty 
species of land birds. 

The new feature of this Report is the separate treatment of 
the spring and autumn migrations, owing to the greater length of 
time over which our reporters made notes. Another new feature 
is the ohituary — or list of deaths — at the different stations. 

In my Report on the East Coast of Scotland, however, I have 
not thought it necessary to keep the spring migration distinct, 
owing to the comparative scarcity of records on our East Coast, 
but in my West Coast Report I do so. Nor have I given an 
obituary for either coast, as the numbers on all the Scottish 

j I au] anxious to receive returns from this locahty, not having received 
any hitherto. I have to thank Mr. W. Anderson for a very full return at 
Snml)urf,'h Head up to Nov. 22nd. I hope he will find St. Abbs as interesting 
a locality, though, I fear, the Great Siren horn, with its unearthly shriek, 
will prove a great scare to migrants in a fog. 



EAST COAST OF SCOTLAND. O 

coasts is inappreciable. As will be seen further on, it is a very 
different matter at the low-lying lanterns of the light-vessels off 
the English coast. At the same time I sufficiently distinguish 
between the spring and autumn records, and where large numbers 
of birds are killed I make mention of it under the separate species. 

SEPARATE REPORT ON EACH SPECIES. 

I have purposely in one or two instances varied the arrange- 
ment of the statistics under the species, — as, for instance, under 
the CorvidcSy — thinking that possibly such variation may j)lace 
in juxtaposition certain fresh considerations or combinations in 
our study, or place these in a clearer light for future com- 
parison. 

Falconid^. — Keturns from N. Unst, Whalsey Skerries, Sum- 
burgh Head, Pentland Skerries, and Isle of May, which, be it 
noted, are all insular localities. On Sej^t. 3rd one Sparrowhawk, 
chasing small birds, seen on Pentland Skerries at 9 a.m., fresh 
S.W. and haze. This appears the earliest date recorded on which 
the Raptores visit the islands on predatory raids in autumn. The 
only record at Isle of May was in the month of May, when two 
*' falcons" were seen. On Sept. 13th a Piough-legged Buzzard (?) 
flew about all day on Whalsey Skerries, wind light S.E. and 
haze; and on Sept. 30th a '' Glede Hawk" (from internal 
evidence probably a Peregrine) flew about; wind fresh N.E. and 
clear ; seen at 8 a.m. On Oct. 3rd a ''falcon" visited the Pent- 
land Skerries, and flew round for a time ; seen at 3 p.m., wind 
strong N. and haze ; and on the same date and in the same 
place, two Sparrowhawks at 1.30 p.m. During Oct. 14th, 16th, 
and 17th, the so-called " Glede Hawks" remained preying upon 
Snow Buntings, and were joined by a Sparrowhawk (or Merlin ?) 
on the 17th, wind fresh N. to W., to strong N.W. At Sumburgh 
Head, Nov. 28th, a ''Brown Hawk" was noticed at noon, during 
S.W. wind, with haze and rain; and a "large Grey Hawk," 
seen flying S., with fresh N. breeze, at 8.30 a.m. 

Notes. — It is recorded that a White-tailed Eagle struck on 
Girdleness lighthouse a few years previous to 1853 (' The Natu- 
ralist,' 1853, p. 139). At North Unst the following species are 
noted as resident : — Three species of Gulls, probably Kittiwake, 
Herring Gull, and Great Black-backed Gull. Iceland Gulls appear 
from October till March, but were scarcer this year than any 



6 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

which Mr. Burnett remembers. The Black Crow (?), Hooded 
Crow, Snipe, Starling, Titlark, and House Sparrow are included 
amongst residents. An occasional White-tailed Eagle is seen, 
and several kinds of hawks. Of all the sea-birds the Petrel is 
the only one that strikes on the lanterns. As it is usually in the 
morning when the rock-birds are first seen on arrival in spring, 
the time of their arrival is supposed to be during the night, and 
the direction of their coming is unknown. — (Signed, Kobert 
Burnett.) Mr. Burnett adds, '' The only rare bird I have heard 
of in this neighbourhood was a Hoopoe." I paid a visit to the 
Isle of May on June 24th, 1880, and made Mr. Agnew's personal 
acquaintance. During a hurried visit of less than two hours my 
companion and myself rowed round the cliff portion of the island, 
and also landed and walked over a considerable part of the lower- 
lying portion of at the N.W. end. We saw the following species 
engaged in incubation : — Oystercatchers, Eider Ducks, Guillemots, 
Kazorbills, Kittiwakes, and Rock Pipits. We searched in vain for 
any species of Tern ; a single Redshank was seen. Mr. Agnew's 
son saw a Black Guillemot a few days before, and Mr. J. H. 
Buchanan, who was out in the S.S. 'Fiery Cross' the previous 
Thursday, ''thought" he saw one also. The Agnews cannot say 
if they breed there or not, but their being seen there occasionally 
would make it worth while, if time permitted, to search carefully 
the suitable clefts and caverns in the lower rocks. It was 
reported to me that the sea-birds have increased greatly on The 
May since the Sea-birds Bill came into force. The eggs, how- 
ever, are still taken wholesale by fishermen from the Fife coast 
and elsewhere. 

O^xs. — The only record occurs at Auskerry, where one was 
seen after midnight on Oct. 21st, and remained about for some. 
time ; exact species not noted. 

Note. — Curiously enough, on the same date, numbers of 
Shoi*t-eared Owls were to be seen in the flesh in the birdstuffers' 
shops in Edinburgh. This shows the value of even single records 
at lighthouse stations, as, were p, not for the above Auskerry 
record, the other fact would stand alone. 

Swallows. — Dm'ing the spring migration these were taken 
notice of at Isle of May, Auskerry, and Sumburgh Head. The 
earliest record is at Isle of May, on April 30th, when two were 
seen flying N.W. at 10 a.m., flying with a light S.E. breeze, and 



EAST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 7 

clear. Then at Sumbui-gh Head, two on May 16th, one on 19th, 
and two on 29th, during the daytime ; winds variable, fine, clear 
to haze, or showery; threatening but fine on 19th; and two were 
seen at Auskerry on May 31st at noon, wind S.S.E., haze. 
Lastly, on June 2nd, at Auskerry, two were seen flying S., 
against a S. gale, with haze ; and this last is properly no doubt 
assignable to the commencement of the autumn migration. 

Wren. — Eecorded at Pentland Skerries and Isle of May only. 
On October 29th at the former, when one was seen flying about 
the island; wind N.E., with snow-showers; and on Oct. 13th, at 
the latter, with light E. wind, and clear. 

GoLDCREST, Regulus cristatus. — The only spring record is on 
April 12th at Sumburgh Head, where **some" were seen resting 
on the dykes between 4 p.m. and 8 p.m. ; wind E., light, with 
fog. In the autumn migrations, they are recorded from two 
stations, viz., Tarbat Ness and Isle of May. They appeared on 
Isle of May on Oct. 8th, when a number were seen, having 
arrived during the previous night; wind strong S.E., showery. 
Mr. Agnew notes this as "an early appearance," and notes also 
** none seen here last year." On Oct. 15th more Groldcrests 
appeared on the same island at 4 a.m., and one was wounded at 
the glass ; wind variable and light ; clear. On Nov. 1st one bird 
struck at midnight, in strong N. wind, with snow. 

EoBiN, Erythaca rubecula. — Occurred at three stations — 
Tarbat Ness, Bell Eock, and Isle of May. A rush appears to 
have taken place about the time of the earliest date — on the 15th 
August — past the Bell Eock. ** Great numbers along with 
Wheatears, Eedshanks, and many small birds unidentified, 
struck the dome and lantern between 1 and 2 a.m. ; wind light 
N.E. and rain. None were found dead on the balcony, but many 
struck ; some lightly, and flew aw^ay again ; others harder, and 
were seen fluttering away into the darkness. No doubt many 
perished in the sea." The next date is the 18th Sept., at Isle of 
May, when one was seen. *'None seen last year." On Oct. 
13th, on Isle of May, another large migration was noticed, many 
being seen upon the island, having arrived during the night. 
On Nov. 2nd, at Tarbat Ness, one struck at 8 p.m. ; strong N.W. 
wind, with showers. 

Wheatear, Saxicola cenanthe, — The northernmost locality 
given is North Unst, where a few strike the lantern during the 



8 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

season, but no dates are given. Thence southwards, they are 
noted at five other stations, viz., Whalsey, Sumburgh Head, 
Auskerry, Pentland Skerries, and the Bell Rock. The earliest 
date is August 4th, at Pentland Skerries, where one struck at 
11.30 p.m.; wind strong E., and haze. The reporter adds the 
note : — ** Starlings and Wheatears generally strike at night, 
when the wind shifts with rain. They probably leave resting- 
places, and, when once on wing, are attracted by the light." On 
Aug. 14th another single bird struck at 10.15 p.m. ; wind light 
S.E., and fog : three more on 15th, from 9 to 11 p.m. ; wind the 
same, with haze. At Sumburgh Head, on Aug. 11th, one young 
bird struck; wind light N., and fog. At Whalsey, on 16th, 
about twelve old and young were flying round the lantern at 
1 a.m. ; wind light W., and haze. At Bell Eock, Aug. 15th, 
great numbers along with Robins. At Auskerry, Sept. 5th, 
three struck at 3 a.m. ; wind strong S., with haze and showers. 
The latest date recorded is Sept. 13th, at Pentland Skerries, 
when two struck at 2 a.m. ; wind fresh S.W., and rain. 

Titmice. — At Isle of May, Aug. 10th and 11th, a migration 
was noticed : 10th, the first pair came to the lights, and one was 
wounded ; 11th, great numbers were seen on the island ; wind 
light E., haze. 

Wagtail. — At ^Mialsey — the only station returning a record 
of this species — large flocks rested, arriving on Aug. 21st; "svind 
light S.E., with dense fog, which lasted till 28th, on which date 
they all again departed. 

Titlark, Anthus pratensis. — Noted as leaving Whalsey 
Skerries in the first week of September ; wind at the time S. to 
S.E., with from haze to fog during the days. The note is 
added, ** A few remain." These are probably Rock Pipits. 
The only other station whence I have records is the Isle of May. 
A very large migration of Titlarks (called ''Woodlarks" in 
schedule) came during the night of Dec. 21st — 22nd ; wind light 
E., and clear; and on the 22nd, "The island was literally 
swarming with them ; flocks of from twenty to one hundred or 
more." Mr. Agnew "never saw so many here before." 

TuRDiD.^. — Records came in from Sumburgh Head in the 
north, to Isle of May in the south, and from Auskerry. One 
record at Sumburgh applies to the spring migration, viz., on 
April 1st, when several Blackbirds (Turdus merida) were seen at 



EAST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 9 

10 a.m. ; wind squally S.S.E ; changeable weather, with haze 
and rain. In the autumn migration we have more returns, but 
none before Nov. 1st, when the first Thrush was seen at 2 a.m. ; 
wind strong W., with showers, at Auskerry. At Isle of May, 
Nov. 1st, "Mountain Thrush" was seen at 2 p.m.; wind light 
S.W., and haze. Thereafter on Dec. 15th, at the same place, a 
very large flock of " Mountain Thrushes" at 2 p.m. ; wind light 
S., and snow. Again, on 22nd, two birds of same species,* and 
one on Jan. 1st; wind light E. to S.S.E. , and haze. At 
Sumburgh Head, Jan. 14th, 1881, one Blackbird at noon ; calm 
and clear. 

CoRviD^. — The spring migration is referred to under Sum- 
burgh Head on April 4th and 5th. On April 4th some Crows 
["species not known"] seen flying S.E. ; wind S.S.E., fine. On 
the 5th a gale blew from the South. The autumn migration has 
eight entries under three stations, viz., Sumburgh Head, Pentland 
Skerries (five dates), and Tarbat Ness. Only two species — 
Kavens and Hooded Crows — are noted. At Pentland Skerries, 
two Eavens on Sept. 29th at 3.30 p.m. ; wind moderate S., clear; 
one on Oct. 9th, wind light E. ; and two on Jan. 13th, 1881, at 

11 a.m., wind fresh N.E., with showers alternating with clear. 
At Sumburgh Head, Hooded Crows arrived on Dec. 5th, and 
remained all winter ; and five were seen on Dec. 1st, at 2.30 p.m. ; 
wind moderate W., and showers; and four on Dec. 29th, at 
1.30 p.m.; wind light E., and clear; and two on Jan. 13th, at 
11 a.m.; wind fresh N.E., clear, alternating with snow-showers. 
At Tarbat Ness great numbers continued along shore in Jan., 
1881, owing to severity of the weather. 

Starling, Sturmis vulgaris. — At Pentland Skerries and Isle of 
May. Earliest dates July 5th and 11th, at Isle of May. Latest 
date (but only three records altogether) 12th Sept., at Pentland 
Skerries. Four struck at 11 a.m. ; wind fresh S., clear ; Pent- 
land Skerries, on 12th Sept. Flock of young at 10 a.m. ; wind 
W., clear; remained two days at Isle of May on same date. 
Very large flock of young at 7 p.m. ; wind N.W., light and clear, 
at the same station. 

* There can be little doubt, I think, that Fieldfares are meant. Eing 
Ouzels are usually denominated "Mountain Blackbirds." Indeed, amongst 
a collection of local names which I have gathered, I find the name of 
" Mountain Thrush" applied to the Fieldfare. 

C 



10 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

Chaffinch, Frinffilla ccelchs. — At Isle of May, Oct. 19tli, a 
few seen : this is rather later than usual. 

Note. — The only record on the west coast agrees with this, 
however, at Bahama L. V. {q. v.) 

Linnet, Fringilla cannahina 1 — The spring migration repre- 
sented only at Isle of May hy one bird at 7 p.m. ; wind light W., 
clear, on May 18th ; and by two birds at 10 a.m. same night ; 
wind light W., clear. In autumn, at Sumburgh Head, from 
sixteen to twenty seen on Dec. 2nd, at 10 a.m. ; wind fresh N., 
haze and rain ; and six on Jan. 3rd, 1881 ; wind strong S.W., 
haze. Previous to this latter date the weather was severe until 
Jan. 2nd, 1881. Snow and frost all gone on 3rd. "Until of late, 
birds very scarce." 

Yellowhammer. — At Isle of May, first seen (only record) on 
Oct. 7th; wind N.E. gale, clear. 

Snow Bunting, Plectrophanes nivalis. — Eecorded from the 
following stations : — Whalsey, Sumburgh Head, Pentland Skerries, 
Isle of May, Inch Keith. In all thirteen entries. Earliest date 
Sept. 13th, at Whalsey, when large flocks arrived and stayed 
thereafter all winter; wind on Sept. 13tli N., with showers. 
Latest date noted Dec. 29th, at Pentland Skerries, when large 
flock seen on island at 11.15 a.m.; wind strong N.E., hail. 
Between these dates : Oct. 27th, at Isle of May, a flock at 2 p.m. ; 
wind E.N.E., and heavy hail- showers. 28th, Pentland Skerries, 
a flock on the island at 1 p.m. ; wind strong N.E., and hail. At 
Pentland Skerries, Nov. 6th, a few — five killed — from 7 to 11 p.m.; 
wind W., showers. At Isle of May, 13th, a flock at 2 p.m. ; wind 
light W., clear. 29th, one bird killed at same station at 6 a.m. ; 
wind light W., haze. At Sumburgh Head, Dec. 5th, ten seen at 
1 p.m. ; wind fresh S.W., haze and rain. At Inch Keith, Dec. 
10th, large flock at 9 a.m., remained twenty-four hours ; 15th, 
very large flock at 11 a.m. ; wind light S., snow. At Pentland 
Skerries, Dec. 19th, flock at 2.15 p.m.; wind strong S.E., rain. 

Note. — Mr. Hardy notes the earliest appearance on 18th Oct. 
in East Lothian — a single bird- near Thornton Loch, on the 
public road, a field's-breadth from the sea-side. Wind N. and 
tempestuous, with heavy rain. 

Sky Lark, Alauda arvensis. — Eecords from Sumburgh Head, 
Pentland Skerries, and Isle of May. Earliest date Oct. 23rd, at 
Sumburgh Head ; one seen singing for a short time ; wind N.W., 



EAST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 11 

fine, showers, and sunshine. Then Dec. 17th, at Pentland 
Skerries, large flock all day on the island; wind fresh N.E., 
clear. Dec. 23rd, Isle of May, all left, not one to be seen. 
Latest record Jan. 13th, 1881, Sumburgh Head; five seen 
hovering round at 1.30 p.m.; wind light E., cloudy. 14th, two 
at 11 a.m., rested; wind light N., clear; and on Nov. 2nd, seven 
at 9 a.m., flying east or landwards; wind fresh S.E., hazy. On 
Dec. 3rd, flocks at 11 a.m. ; wind E., flying S. 

EocK Pigeon, Columha livia. — At Pentland Skerries, a flock 
seen at 2 p.m. ; wind light S.W., snow on the ground. 

Golden Plover, Charadrius pluvialis. — Eecords reached me 
from Auskerry, Pentland Skerries, Tarbat Ness, and Isle of May 
(ten entries, of which seven were at Pentland Skerries). Earliest 
date July 23rd, when six were seen flying about the island — 
Pentland Skerries — at 9 a.m.; wind light E. At Pentland 
Skerries, Aug. 11th, a flock flying S.E. at 10.30 a.m.; wind 
light W., clear. No more till Nov. 15th, when a flock remained 
a week at Auskerry, arriving at 11 a.m., with light N.E. wind. 
At Tarbat Ness, Nov. 11th, hundreds all day till 4 p.m. ; wind 
N. to W. with snow. Nov. 21st, at 3.30 p.m., a flock on island 
at Pentland Skerries;, wind fresh S.W., clear. At Pentland 
Skerries, Dec. 16th, a flock flying N. at 10.30 a.m. ; wind fresh 
S.W., and snow. At Isle of May, Dec. 22nd, one bird. " They 
are not seen here every year, and most in severe weather." 

Oystercatcher, HcBmatopus ostralegus. — At Sumburgh Head, 
Aug. 28th, all left after the fog of 21st — 28th cleared away; as 
did other species, including Wheatears, Wagtails, and Kock- 
birds. At Auskerry, five arrived, with light S. wind and haze, 
and remained a week. 

Heron, Ardea cinerea. — At Isle of May, July 22nd, a flock of 
six flying S. at 2.30 p.m.; wind light E., clear. At Pentland 
Skerries, SejDt. 9th, seven at 5 a.m. ; wind light W., clear. At 
Sumburgh Head, Sept. 19th, three flying about at 10 a.m. ; wind 
N.W., and haze. At Auskerry, Oct. 8th, two arrived at 2 p.m.; 
wind light E., clear; and remained; and at same station on 
21st, twelve arrived at 11.30 a.m. ; wind light N., and remained. 
Curlew, Numenius arquata. — One record (April 13th) belongs 
to the spring migration. One was seen flying S.E. at 11 a.m. ; 
wind S., and haze. At Sumburgh Head, Aug. 12th, six seen 
flying W. and crying loudly at 12.30 p.m. ; wind S.W., and haze. 



12 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

2nd, seven flying about, and then taking ofif W. and crying loudly 
at 1 p.m. ; wind light S.W., haze. At Auskerry, Oct. 9th, five at 
1 p.m.; ^vind light E., clear; and remained. At Isle of May, 
Curlews had been on the island for weeks. 

Note. — Mr. Dunn, Dalkeith Gardens, "heard a Curlew when 
calling, some 800 to 1000 feet up in the air." It was flying due 
W. on Dec. 26th. The sky was clear and the sun shining at the 
time — about 1 p.m. Wind light from W. in morning ; calm at 
the time. For the previous six days the wind veered between S. 
by W. to N., the prevailing wind being S.W. Weather " very 
cold that day, and for a few days before and after." Being a 
station of the Scottish Meteorological Society, the above statistics 
are exact. 

Kedshank and Sandpiper, Totanus calidris. — At Isle of May, 
Dec. 27th, three Sandpipers seen at 4 p.m.; wind N.E., haze; 
and on Jan. 3rd, at same place, a Kedshank shot. 

Snipe, Scolopax gallinago. — At Auskerry, Pentland Skerries, 
and Isle of May. At Isle of May, Sept. 12th, one killed at lantern 
at 4 a.m. ; wind N.E., fresh, and rain. At Pentland Skerries, 
Oct. 2nd, two killed at 8.30 p.m., during strong N. wind, haze, 
and rain. At Auskerry, Oct. 21st, two arrived at 3.45, and 
remained ; wind strong N. At Isle of May, Jan. 12th, a number 
arrived at night ; wind fresh N.E., and rain. 

Woodcock, Scolopax rusticola. — At Isle of May, Oct. 9th, one 
seen at 5 a.m. ; wind strong N.E., and showers; this is earlier 
than usual. At Isle of May, Oct. 19th, more arrived during the 
night or morning, with N.E. gale, and showers. At Auskerry, 
Oct. 21st, one arrived at 3.30 p.m., and remained; wind strong 
N., with sleet. On Nov. 16th considerable numbers came during 
the night. These are the latest Mr. Agnew remembers to have* 
seen, by several weeks. At Pentland Skerries, Nov. 29th, one on 
the island at morn; wind strong W., and clear. 

Goose, Anser. — On Oct 14th a flock of ''Grey Geese" flying 
S.E., at 10.45 a.m., past the Pentland Skerries ; wind fi-esh N.W., 
and showers. Again on Oct. 24th another flock of the same 
flying also S.E. at 5.15 p.m.; wind also fresh N.W., clear. 
Again on 26th Oct. a flock of the same flying N. at 6.30 a.m. ; 
wind strong N., and showers; all the above probably indicating 
only a local migration — to and fro. At Isle of May, Oct. 26th, a 
large flock flying N., with westerly gale. 



EAST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 13 

Note. — Mr. Dunn, Dalkeith Gardens, " observed a > -shaped 
flock of about forty Wild Geese, about six hundred feet from the 
surface of the earth, flying in an easterly direction on the 16th 
December. They made a considerable noise in their flight. The 
wind at the time was N.W., and for the six previous days it 
ranged from W. to N., on one day only chopping round to S., viz., 
on 15th, which was the day before we saw the Geese. Snow was 
lying on the ground at the time, and the next seven days were 
cold, dull, and stormy, with more or less snow falling every day. 
Flights of Geese are not common in this district, hence the 
interest taken in the above." Could we get a number of similar 
records from inland observers, how useful they would be for 
comparison with our coast stations. — [J. A. H. B.] 

Swan, Cijgnus. — At Sumburgh Head, Jan. 30th, 1881, twenty 
wild Swans seen, first a mile off, flying along the shore very 
slowly, and lowering, apparently much exhausted. At North 
Ronaldshay, Dec. 23rd, 1880, sixteen Swans seen ; they stayed 
on a large loch about two weeks, during a heavy fall of snow, 
and flew off north when the thaw commenced. 

Ducks. — Two records on April 1st at Whalsey and Sumburgh 
Head, referable to the spring migration. At Whalsey, Eider 
Ducks (or ''Dunters") arrived about this date, and at Sumburgh 
Head, Sheldrakes arrived on this date, at 10 a.m. ; wind strong 
S.S.E., with showers. In the autumn migration, notes have 
been taken at Whalsey, Sumburgh Head, Pentland Skerries, and 
Isle of May (eight entries). Eiders said to leave about August, 
and the note is added that, "after the Ducks have sat eight or 
ten days, the Drakes all disappear from the neighbourhood." 
On Sept. 12th, twelve male Eiders seen at 3 p.m. ; wind S., and 
fine, with haze. At Pentland Skerries, Sept. 14th, a flock, 
mostly males, seen flying E.; wind light E., and rain. Sept. 
25th, at same station, a flock of male and female Eiders flying 
E.; wind light E., rain. At Isle of May, Oct. 19th, a ''small 
duck." At Isle of May, Dec. 22nd, "a flock of ducks" swam 
along shore. At Tarbat Ness, Dec. 30th, flocks of from eight to 
ten "ducks" seen from 2 to 3.30 p.m. ; wind light N., and snow. 
At Isle of May, Jan. 13th, three "Wild Ducks" seen; wind 
E.N.E., gale, and snow. 

EocK BiKDS. — Records at North Unst, Whalsey, and Sum- 
burgh refer to spring arrival. At North Unst, April 25th, 



14 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

innumerable Puffins and rock-birds arrived ; wind fresh N.W., 
and clear. At Whalsey, March 15th, the rock-birds arrived. At 
Sumburgh, March 4th, they arrived about 7 a.m. In autumn, 
all left Whalsey on Aug. 28th after the fog, which had hung 
since the 21st, cleared off. At Pentland Skerries, July 25th, a 
flock of Guillemots seen flying E. at 7 p.m., with moderate E. 
wind. On Aug. 4th, two flocks flying E. between 3 and 4 p.m., 
with light S. wind ; and on Aug. 25th, three flocks seen flying E. 
between 5 and 8 p.m., with light S.W. airs. 

Note. — Mr. M. Vaughan — to whom I am indebted for supple- 
mentary notes — writes that Eock-birds, Gannets, and Cormorants 
were scarcer than usual in Orkney during the first week in 
August. Ihave no return this year from Dunnet Head, but Mr. 
Geo. Maclachlan, says, " There are over 3000 Guillemots hatched 
here, and I am able to count (say) 175 in 350." At the Isle of 
May, Eiders arrived about Oct. 1st, coming, it is believed, to 
winter from the Isle of May and Fidra. They remain till end 
of March. 

Gulls. — At Sumburgh Head, Oct. 23rd, one Iceland Gull seen 
at 8 a.m. ; wind N.W., with showers. This is the first seen. 
They come in October and leave in April. At same station, Nov. 
22nd, another Iceland Gull at 10 a.m. ; wind fresh S.W., and 
clear. At Tarbat Ness, Dec. 24th, two ('' Iceland Gulls ") at 
11 a.m. ; wind light N.E., and sleet. 

Note. — These ''Iceland Gulls" maybe true Lams islandicus 
or Iceland Gull vera, but more probably are Glaucous Gulls 
{Larus glaiicus). The incident below related is confirmed by a 
letter received from Mr. Jack, the head light-keeper at the Bell 
Kock lighthouse : — '* Arbroath : A Fact for Naturalists. — Our 
Arbroath correspondent writes : — A curious story of a sea-bird is 
in circulation here, and I send it you, as it has been related to me 
on what seems fairly good authority. The other day a white Sea 
Gull of the Kittiwake variety was seen flying about the signal- 
tower of the Bell Kock lighthouse. The bird was evidently in 
distress, and one of the lighthouse-keepers opening a window, held 
out his hands, when it came to him. The bird, in taking a bait 
fixed to a line, had swallowed the hook, and the line, with its 
handle, a stick about a foot long, was dependent from the bird's 
mouth. The light-keeper cut away the string as far down the 
bird's throat as he could reach, and the bird flew away evidently 



EAST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 15 

relieved. — * Scotsman,' 1st May, 1880." Mr. Jack writes as 
follows, 10th May, 1880 : — " It is quite true about the Sea Gull. 
It was so unusual to see a string attached to the bird, that 
I opened the window of my bedroom and leaned out to look at it, 
when, strange to say, it came towards me. Without thinking for 
a moment that the creature would really come to me, I held out 
my hands towards it, when it came close up to me. I took hold 
of it and brought it inside, and called to my two assistants (who 
were looking out of another window a few feet from mine) to 
' look at this.' So surprised were they both at the whole affair, 
that after we had relieved the poor bird, one of my assistants 
declared that, when he got on shore in turn, he would state the 
case to the editor of the 'Guide' newspaper." "Poor little 
creature ! " adds my correspondent, "it was a pleasant sight to 
see it on its flight away, and not as it arrived, weary and worn 
out." One has only to imagine the Bell Kock as the Ark in the 
midst of the waters, and the Gull a Dove. As I am speaking 
now of the Bell Eock, I may note here that large numbers of 
Long-tailed Ducks are reported by Mr. Jack as frequenting the 
vicinity of the rock in winter, constantly uttering their peculiar 
cry of " Co-co-candle-wick." Solan Geese are perpetually in sight 
summer and winter, flying round the rock or fishing. Mr. Jack 
also tells us that single birds of different species come crash 
against the dome or windows with terrific force, and rebounding 
off are seldom even seen, but leave often their blood and brains 
scattered about. 

Skua, Lestris catarractes. — EeiDorted as seen at North Unst 
first on April 18th. About the same number is counted, viz., 
six or eight each year. In autumn, at Sumburgh Head, one 
"Bonzie" was seen flying W. at noon; wind S.S.W., haze; and 
the note is added, " The first seen (in autumn?) for eight years." 

Terns, Sternince. — Two records referable to spring migration 
at Whalsey and Sumburgh Head. Arriving at former about 
May 15th and at the latter on May 16th, at 9.40, with variable 
winds, fine, and clear. In autumn, records at Whalsey, Sum- 
burgh Head, Auskerry, and Bell Kock. They disappeared from 
Bell Kock on Aug. 23rd, " not, however, from want of food, as 
plenty soil of herring are around the rock." They had been 
about the rock for a fortnight, feeding. They disappeared from 
Whalsey, Aug. 25th, after the fog of 21st — 28th, at the same 



16 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

time with Wbeatears, Oystercatchers, Wagtails, and rock-birds. 
At Bell Rock, Aug. 28th, about thirty old and young were seen 
feeding ; and on the 29tli these all left. At Sumburgh Head, 
Sept. 8th, a number flying about and crying at 9 a.m. ; wind W., 
light and haze. At Auskerry, Oct. 1st, four flew round for a 
little about 1 a.m. ; wind light E., rain. 

Note. — Mr. J. T. Garriock, to whom I am obliged for 
a supplementary schedule from Lerwick, recorded in ' The 
Zoologist ' for 1880 the arrival of Terns, apparently from the 
north, on May 22nd, when a pair was fii;st noticed. In a sub- 
sequent letter to me, Mr. Garriock confirms his observation on 
the dii'ection of their flight. 

Petrel, Thalassidroma pelagica. — Occasionally strikes the 
lantern during the season at North Unst, but no dates given. 
At Whalsey, Aug. 16th, one caught at 1 a.m. ; wind light N.W., 
haze. At Sumburgh Head, Aug. 3rd, three struck at 11 p.m.; 
wind N.N.W., dull, and sultry; and on the 6th, one struck at 
midnight ; wind S., and haze. At Auskerry, Aug. 16th, one 
killed at 11.20 p.m. ; light S. breeze, fog, and haze. One 
struck at Auskerry, Sept. 13th, at 3 a.m. ; wind strong S., and 
haze. 

Gannet, Sida hassana. — At Sumburgh Head, July 20th 
(earliest date), great numbers, adult and young, flying in all 
directions, feeding on herrings. At Pentland Skerries, July 19th, 
30—40, flying E., wind N.E., 9 a.m. to 5 p.m.; 20th, 50, flying 
E., wind fresh N., 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. ; 21st, 60, flying E., wind 
light N.E., clear, 9 a.m. to 5 p.m.; 22nd, 25, flying E., wind 
light N.E. aii-s, 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. ; 23rd, 25 — 30, flying E., wind 
E., 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. ; 24th, 40, flying E., wind S.E., 9 a.m. to 
7 p.m., fog, haze; 26th, 60, flying E., wind mod. E., 9 a.m. to* 
7 p.m., fog, haze; Aug. 4th, continuous flights, wind light E., 
9 a.m. to 7 p.m., fog, haze ; 5th, continuous flights, wind moderate 
W., 4.30 a.m. to 8.30 p.m. 

Note. — Solan Geese were observed daily in flocks going E., 
from July 19th to middle of Sept. ; and going W. on Aug. 19th, 
20th, and 25th. About the middle of Sept. young appeared 
amongst them. This note summarises to a great extent the 
above data. At Tarbat Ness, Oct. 18th, 19th, and 20th, great 
numbers flying N., wind S., 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. Since the return 
of the schedules Mr. Jack has written to me that — " On the 5th 



EAST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 17 

February, 1881, the Bell Kock station was visited by the largest 
flock of birds I have seen this winter, viz.. Larks, Eose Linnets, 
Starlings, and other species which I did not see well enough to 
make out. Time when seen, 2 till 5 a.m. ; wind light S.W. on 
arrival, and on departure fresh N.E. Fog and rain. Great 
numbers struck, but none found dead, though doubtless many 
fell into the sea. I have observed during the last two winters 
that the Golden- crested Wren and the Common Wren have not 
visited us as usual. I have seen these small birds thick on the 
windows, night after night, during the fall of the year." It is 
interesting to note here that between the 2nd and 11th March, 
1880, a similar great migration took place past the Bell Kock, of 
which an account is given in my last report for 1879 [vide ZooL, 
May, 1880] .* At Bell Eock, 18th Feb., a great number of Larks, 
8 p:m., light E.S.E., haze. Great numbers struck, none lying 
dead. Apparently this flock was entirely composed of Larks 
greatly exhausted. A number seen asleep all night on window- 
sashes ; left at first streak of dawn. Feb. 19th, a small number 
of birds (species not determined) flew about in the rays of light 
all night; wind S.E., fresh, haze. 25th, great number of Larks 
during the night ; wind light W. ; striking, but none found dead ; 
left, flying N.W. March 10th, one Black Crow seen asleep on 
balcony rail; left flying N.E., at 7 a.m.; wind fresh W. S.W. , 
haze. 17th, one '' Snowflake" flying from N.W. to S.E.; wind 
W.S.W., fresh, haze. In a letter accompanying this later 
schedule, Mr. Jack writes (28th March, 1881) : — " I am sorry to 
say our close companions during winter, Dunters and Sea 
Pheasants, are still with us in great numbers. This we know 
by long observation to indicate that winter is not yet past for a 
season, nor can we judge so until they have all been gone for a 
week at least. In the fall of the year, when we see them return, 
we well know that winter is at hand. When stationed in the 
Isles of Shetland I have often remarked, when I heard much 
howling going on amongst the seals, that no good weather could 
be looked for, and I have never known this to fail." 

* Later in March this year, viz. the 19th, an indication of a returning (?) 
migration of Shrikes is found in the occurrence of one bird at Bath Hill 
Wood, West Grange, Perthshu-e, not very far removed from the Alloa 
district. It was shot by Mr. J. Livingstone, and is now in the collection of 
Mr. J. J. Dalgleish. 

D 



18 report on the migration of birds. 

General Remarks. 

As already mentioned, we have received fewer returns this 
year from the East Coast than in 1879, having returns only from 
eight stations in 1880, against thirteen in 1879. This arises 
princi2)ally from actual scarcity of hirds at many stations, and at 
some, from extra work devoted to duties of the reporters, owing to 
fogs and stormy weather. This scarcity appears to have extended 
all along our Scottish E. coast, and even showed itself for some 
distance down the East English coast. That, at no time, can 
our East of Scotland returns approach in magnitude those of 
the East English coast, I fully believe, because, in the weather 
most favourable for observation at the stations, — viz., foggy or 
thick nights, — lanterns placed a few feet above the water, as 
they are in lightships, must attract far more birds than higher 
lanterns at the lighthouses. The peculiar situations also of 
many of our Scottish stations — in the midst of towns (as at 
Cromarty and Kinnaird Head, in Frazerburgh), in inland bays 
and arms of the sea (as at Chanonr}^, and at many localities 
on our west coast) — must very materially alter the con- 
ditions of observation. At our more northern stations the 
lighthouses for the most part stand at great elevations, and it is 
worthy of note that from such stations as the Bell Eock, Pent- 
land Skerries, and Whalsey Skerries, on the east coast, and 
Dhuheartach and Skerry vore, on the west coast, &c., we have the 
best filled schedules, showing that stations upon lower and 
isolated elevations are the best points of observation. 

At the conclusion of my report for 1879, under the West Coast 
stations, I take notice of the N.W. to S.E. trend of the migration 
across Tyree and Loch Assapol in the Eoss -of Mull, and of tlie. 
direction taken by birds across the narrow part of Scotland 
between the Firths of Forth and Clyde {vide ' The Zoologist,' 
May, 1880, pp. 202—204). 

My present impression — from these and many similar obser- 
vations in Stirlingshire and the districts named — is, that a semi- 
circular migration is probably carried on ; birds which strike our 
coasts at more northerly points, or start from localities further 
north in Scotland itself, at certain points trend more southerly 
from their original E. to W. direction; and again, at certain 
other points, again trend more easterly from their previous N. to 



I 



EAST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 19 

S. direction, and pass finally, as far as our British Islands are 
concerned, from N.W. to S.E. directions. This, of course, is 
more patent in some seasons than in others, depending upon 
])rev ailing winds and weather. Birds came to us all through the 
migratory season from E. to W. across the North Sea, except in 
1879 at the Galloper Bank l. v. (ZooL, May, 1880, p. 203). In 
1879, I believe, as further indicated at the end of my report on 
the West Coast, that the migration was compressed by prevailing 
N.W. winds, and deflected further south, but in 1880 was more 
expanded, or less compressed, by prevalence of N.E. and E. winds, 
and that therefore the horizontal area of migration covered a 
larger surface. In 1880 we thus find birds migrating from 
directions south of East to directions north of West across the 
English Channel, or crossing from France to England {vide 
Cordeaux's Eeport antea). These points are put forward not as 
intended to be conclusive, but simply for the purpose of 
directing attention for further statistics. I will only further 
direct attention here to my " Third Ornithological Eeport for 
Scotland, 1880-81," read to the Natural History Society of 
Glasgow, session 1880-81. 

In our last Eeport, 1879 (Zool., May, 1880), under our lists of 
lighthouses, we gave the descriptions of the lights, whether white 
or red, fixed, flash, revolving, or intermittent, or with other lights 
or action. What influence in attracting birds these various 
descriptions of light haVe, it would not yet be easy to ascertain, 
because — given the different colours and descriptions — we have 
them at different localities, which makes it almost impossible to 
compare them. However, broadly speaking, we would imagine 
the brightest, ivliit est, fixed lights to have most influence in pene- 
trating fog or haze, and therefore of attracting birds. We 
considered it advisable to give these descriptions in our first 
Eeport, because we thought that in time such may prove of some 
value when our knowledge of migration increases. In the Eeport 
for 1880 we have not repeated these particulars, but, instead, we 
give, after the name of each lighthouse station, the heights of the 
lanterns above the sea, not because we can positively affirm that 
the height of any given light influences the total of birds seen or 
killed at that light, but because we believe that this particular 
may possibly elicit facts in future. Some of our reporters state 
extreme height above the sea as a cause of birds seldom or never 



20 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

striking the glass, or never being seen hovering round the light. 
Certainly, returns show a preponderance of deaths or other records, 
first, at lig]itsJ(ips (the average height of the lights of which above 
the sea is only a few feet) ; secondly, at such stations — upon 
isolated rocks — as the Bell Rock, Dhuhcartach, or Skerryvore 
(the lanterns of which are not more than sixty or seventy 
feet above the water) ; and a great preponderance above such 
stations as Cape Wrath (which is 400 feet above the sea) or other 
similarly elevated lights. During the daytime, whilst crossing 
towards the English coasts and past the lightships, flocks are 
usually seen flying low ; and across the Firth of Forth and other 
narrow estuaries the same thing is observed. At times birds are 
seen passing high in air " almost beyond the range of vision," 
and when clouds or fogs rapidly lift or clear off during the 
time of migration, the said migration appears often to "cease 
to mortal vision," indicating, some say, a reascent to higher 
levels. Birds also are known to descend upon Heligoland 
almost 2)erpendicularly from the sky, indicating, it is presumed, 
a course of migration at a great height, and a descent there- 
from upon fog- or haze-covered land to rest or feed. To 
birds passing through the air above, a local fog beneath pro- 
bably indicates laud in the midst of icateVj and, if this be 
so, hence a descent upon it. The various numerical returns 
of those killed at lanterns are probably a good deal dependent 
on the heighii at which birds fly in foggy weather. We might 
call this the vertical area of birds' migration flight as opposed 
to lateral area. 

Now it seems that light-vessels always return the best-filled 
schedules, and therefore a preponderance of birds are noticed all 
along the East English Coast, where light- vessels are most 
abundant. Whilst upon the East Scottish Coast the returns 
are infinitely smaller where there are no light -vessels, but only 
lighthouses, whose lanterns are at a greater height; and the 
question very naturally arises, "If the Scottish coasts were 
lighted with light-vessels, would^not the number of records be 
very considerably augmented?" 



EAST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 21 



Mr. J. Hardy's Notes from Berwickshire and the Borders. 

Swallows. — Began to take up their residence on May 12tli ; 
left September 26tli. Much later elsewhere in central districts. 

Martin. — Keturned on May 15th to sea-side nesting-places on 
rocks and cavern-mouths. On September 22nd the great body 
departed, and on 27th had all left but one. 

Sand Martin. — April 23rd, on sea-coast. 

Starling. — Most of the young birds had left the upper part 
of Berwickshire before October 31st. 

Thrush. — March 21st, a few birds scattered here and there ; 
very scarce. Left mostly by September ; only a few later. 

Kedshank. — Dispersed before March 18th, when only one was 
he^rd. A pair returned March 20th. June 24th a pair had 
returned. On July 17th six or seven frequented the coast. On 
August 31st a small compact band noticed. 

Eider Duck. — A Hock of six appeared on the coast, March 
18th and 22nd. There were eight on March 27th and four on 
March 30th. 

Wild Duck {Anas hoschas). — Continued on coast till March 
22nd ; greatl}^ diminished by March 27th. One reappeared at 
sea September 25th. On October 16th they amounted to thirty, 
and on November 15tli about one hundred were enumerated. 
In December they nearly all left the coast. On December 29th 
only nine remained. 

Great Crested Grebe. — A party of twelve noted for the last 
time March 22nd, 1880. They reappeared, to the number of 
fifteen, on December 20th, and continued all winter. 

Eaven. — January 24th, one seen ; storm of snow. 

Curlew. — March 27th and 30th, most had left the coast ; 
only one bird left on April 17th. One reappeared June 7th, and 
more on the 9th. A great flock on September 20tli ; shifted 
their ground before Decemer 16tli ; only one or two left at the 
close of the year. 

Pied Wagtail. — February 7tli, one first seen ; the next 
arrived March 27th. Left September 24th. 

Wheatear. — March 25th, appeared off coast, but were absent 
on March 27th. March 29th, a little band of seven or eight 
arrived, but disappeared. April 17th, a few appeared inland. 



22 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

Noted again on the coast July 15th ; September 17th, last seen. 
Were seen at Berwick, October 14tli, but the conditions are very 
different from here. 

Whinchat. — A family newly hatched on the coast a mile to 
the south of this on August 9th ; not seen again. 

Stonechat. — Not in some of its old haunts this year. On 
coast on Cockburn's-path, April 30th. 

Redstart. — May 2nd. Scarce this year. 

Sedge Warbler. — May 2oth, arriving in a band of late 
migrants. 

Willow Warbler. — April 18th, in garden. April 23rd and 
24th, singing sweetly ; last seen September 4th. 

Swift.— May 16th. 

Greater Whitethroat. — May 13th, arrived ; 16th, general. 
August 6th, haunts the garden ; a single bird left September 
19th. Observed in some localities till end of October, but not 
here. 

Landrail and Cuckoo. — Not heard in the neighbourhood this 
season. 

Blackcap Warbler. — May 22nd, in Peasedean ; not heard 
on 16th. 

Spotted Flycatcher. — May 25th, numerous arrival along 
with other migrants, as was the case last year. Last seen 
September 5th. 

Black-headed Gull. — June 11th, two returned to the sea- 
side ; more appeared July 15th, 16th and 17th. By the end of 
the year the numbers were reduced to one or two. 

Fieldfare. — October 31st and November 9th, arrived, but few 
in number, and only one remained to face the storms of 1881 ; 
very scarce. No Eedwings seen here. A great scarcity or total 
absence is recorded from a large number of Scottish localities 
for the past two years. — J. A. H. B. 

Wood Pigeons. — A large migratory band proceeding high over 
head flying from N. to S., on October 30th. 

Snow Bunting. — A very large flock of Snowflakes arrived at 
Penmanshiel on October 30tli, but left after resting a few 
days. Again numerous there, November 30th. A few remained 
at Old Cambus, January 7th, 1881. October 18th, one landed 
in East Lothian in a storm of wind and rain from the North, 
near Thornton Loch. 



EAST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 23 

Grey-backed Crow. — November 5th, arrived. 

Woodcock. — Did not leave till second week in May. Eeturned 
to Peasedean, November 2nd. One flushed at Blackburn, Chirn- 
side, October 20th. 

Lark. — December 16th, flock of about one hundred seen ; 
most of them remained and departed in March. 

Grey Linnet. — December 29th, flocks that fully numbered 
one hundred birds feeding on the sea-coast ploughed fields 
infested by wild mustard. Had all left, except four or five, by 
January 9th, 1881, when that number came to the stack- and 
230ultry-yards. 

Brambling. — Only two present in the great snow on January 
15th and 19th — at corn laid out for poultry — along with 
Finches. 

'Wild Geese {Greylag probably). — February 8th, first band 
returning north. Continued in neighbourhood till April 24th. 
In autumn return first seen October 11th and 30th. Did 
not rest. 

Lapwing. — In inland fields, March 7th. July 15th, retm-ned 
to turnip-fields. Disappeared in January, 1881. 

Grey Wagtail. — March 8th, a pair returned. On May 25th 
several new arrivals along with a rush of migrants, consisting of 
Flycatchers, Sedge Warblers, and Common Martins. 

Waterhen. — March 9th returned to its breeding pools. 

Heron. — April 17th, still three on the coast. On July 15th 
there were seven or eight. On August 6th there were sixteen, 
and on August 31st twelve. 

Cormorant. — Began to disperse about March 9th, when there 
were six. Only one on March 18th, and two on March 25th. 
March 27th and 30th, only one. Were not again noted till 
August 9th and 12th, when only a pair had returned. Scarcer 
this winter than usual. 

Bare Birds recorded by others on my List. — Hoopoe in 
Northumberland. One Greater Shrike in Berwickshire, others 
in Northumberland. Bohemian Chatterer, Kelso ; Turtle Dove, 
Kough-legged Buzzard (one). 



24 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 



Notes from the Faroe Isles. 

The following notes from Herr H. C. Miiller and Dr. Madsen, 
of Tborshavn, Faroe, have been received too late for insertion in 
the General Eeport, but not too late for addition as an Appendix. 
These notes were all made after the 1st January, 1881. They 
came to hand on May 1st, 1881 : — 

Cygniis musicus. — Five Wild Swans were seen on Jan. 1st, 
1881 ; three killed at Sudero on 22nd ; one seen near Thorshavn 
on 10th ; probably all belonging to the same flock. Wind S.W., 
force 3 — 4. Rain. 

Numemiis arquata. — One killed at Hvidenov, near Thorshavn, 
on Jan. 30th. Wind S.S.E., force 4. Rain. 

Columha palumhus, Linn. — One seen along with Columha livia 
at Thorshavn on Feb. 7th. AVind E., force 5. Rain and hail. 

Larus tridactijlus. — Four seen at Thorshavn at 10 a.m. on 
Feb. 10th. Wind E., force 3—4. Snow. 

Alanda arvensis. — One hundred in a flock seen at Thorshavn 
at 9 a.m. on March 8th, 1881. Wind S.W., fine. For the five 
days previous storm from S.E. 

VancUiis cristatiis. — Four seen same time as the above noted 
Larks, in and after similar weather. 



25 



EAST COAST OF ENGLAND. 

Printed forms of enquiry and letters of instruction were sent 
to thirty-seven lighthouses and light-vessels on the east coast of 
England, and, through the kind co-operation of Mr. Cecil Smith, 
to two of the principal lighthouses in the Channel Islands : 
independent reports have also been received from four stations 
on the east coast ; and my best thanks are due to T. H. Nelson 
and C. Donald Thompson, Teesmouth ; M. Bailey, Flamborough ; 
Wm. Eagle Clarke and H. Bendelack Hewetson [Leeds] ; notes 
from Spurn Point. J. H. Gurney, jun., Northrepps, and Major 
C. Eussell, Essex, for supplying notices of the movements of 
birds in their respective districts. These reports have either 
been treated separately or incorporated with the nearest light- 
house. I have also received many interesting notes from 
Mr. Gatke, on the migration of birds over Heligoland from 
the commencement of June to the end of December, which are 
especially welcome as a most valuable addition to the report. 
Special thanks I also must tender to those various observers in 
the lighthouses and light-vessels scattered along the east coast. 
Altogether, out of forty-four stations, returns have been sent in 
from thirty-eight ; two other stations report no birds seen during 
the autumn, from the circumstances of their situations in the 
midst of houses ; and only from four have no returns been made. 
The observations are in many respects an improvement on those 
of the preceding year, exhibiting in a marked degree the 
intelligent interest taken by the observers in their work — work 
which it must be remembered is entirely voluntary, and often 
carried on under circumstances of considerable difficulty and 
discomfort. 

The east coast stations are as follows, those making returns 
being marked with a * : — 

40. =:=Longstone, on the raost easterly of the Fame Islands ; white light, 

revolving every 30 seconds. 

41. -i^Farne Inner, two hghts; white, revolving every 30 seconds. 

42. =:=Coquet Island, coast of Northumberland ; two white lights in same 

tower. 

E 



26 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

43. =!=Soiiter Point. Nil return — no birds seen. 

44a. =<'Teesmoiith, No. 5 Buoy, Lightvessel ; one white light, fixed. 

44i. =:<Teesmouth. 

45. *Whitb\', High Light; white, fi.xed. 

46. =>■= Flam borough Head; two white, one red flash, revolving every half 

minute. 

47. -i'Spurn Point; red and white sectors. 

48«. ^=Spurn (Newsand), Lightvessel, 6 miles S.S.E. of Spurn Point; 

white, revolving every minute. 
486. *Great Cotes. 

49. *Outer Dowsing, Lightvessel, 53 miles E.S.E. Spurn ; red light, 

revolving every 20 seconds. 

50. =-Liiier Dowsing, Lightvessel, 17 miles E. Sutton, on Lincolnshire 

coast; green, '^0 seconds. 

51. =:=Dudgeon, Lightvessel, 35 miles E. Skegness, Lincolnshire coast ; 

white, fixed. 

52. *Lynn Well, Lightvessel, off Nook of Longsand, Lynndeeps ; one 

white, revolving 20 seconds. 

53. ^Hunstanton, Lighthouse ; white, fixed. 

54. ^-Cromer, Lighthouse; white, revolving each minute. 
55a. ^'Northrepps. 

556. -Leman and Ower, Lightvessel, 48 miles E.N.E. Cromer; two white, 
one fixed, one revolving. 

56. 'i^Hasbo rough, Lightvessel ; two white, fixed horizontal, north end 

Hasborough Sound. 

57. ^Hasborough, Lighthouse ; white, fixed. 

58. =:=Newarp, Lightvessel, 12 miles N.E. VVinterton ; white, three quick 

flashes, 36 seconds in a minute dark. 
50. 'lAVinterton, Lighthouse ; white, fixed. 

60. 'i^Cockle, Lightvessel, 3 miles E. Yarmouth ; white, revolving each 

minute. 

61. i^Corton, Lightvessel, 4 miles E. Lowestoft ; red, revolving 20 seconds. 

62. =:=Lowestoft, Lighthouse. Nil return — no birds seen. 

63. Orfordness, Lighthouse ; white, fixed. 

64. =-Shipwash, Liglitvessel, 8 miles S.S.E. Orfordness; white, fixed. 

65. Cork, Lightvessel, 5 miles off mouth of Harwich River. 

66. =:=Languard Point, Lighthouse, entrance to Harwich River ; returned 

by Major Russell. 

67. '-:'- Galloper, Lightvessel, 40 miles S.E. Orfordness ; two white, hori- 

zontal, fixed. 

68. ^Kentish Knock, Lightvessel, 33 miles N.E. North Foreland; white, 

revolving each minute. 

69. =i^Swin Middle, Lightvessel, off Thames ; white, revolving every minute. 



EAST COAST OF ENGLAND. 27 

70. *Tongue, Lightvessel, off Thames ; two lights, fixed : higher white, 

lower red. 

71. Nore, Lightvessel, entrance to Thames ; white, revolving 30 seconds. 

72. 'i'-North Foreland, Lighthouse; white, fixed. 

73. -i^Goodwin, Lightvessel, Goodwin Sands ; white, revolving, three quick 

flashes in succession, 86 seconds dark. 

74. *Gull, Lightvessel, Goodwin Sands ; white, revolving 20 seconds. 

75. *Southsand Head, Lightvessel, Goodwin Sands; white, fixed. 

76. *East-side, Lightvessel, Goodwin Sands, 13 miles E. Deal ; green, 

revolving 15 seconds. 

77. South Foreland, Lighthouse; white, fixed. 

78. * Heligoland. 

79. ^=Casquets, Lighthouse, off Aldernej ; white, triple, flashing every 

30 seconds. 

80. *Hanois, Lighthouse, Hanoveaux Rocks, W. end Guernsey; one red, 

revolving 45 seconds. 

As many of the reports range over a twelvemonth, it is 
necessary to divide the remarks on the separate species into 
spring and autumn migrations. The numbers of species noticed 
are very greatly in excess of 1879. 

SPRING MIGRATION, 1880. 
SEPARATE EEPORT ON EACH SPECIES. 

Pied Flycatcher, Muscicapa luctuosa {atricapilla, Linn.). — 
At Heligoland, Mr. Gatke reports, May 4th, great many fine old 
males; 5th, the same; 15th, E., many females, few males; 
19th, S.S.E., all females. 

Blackbird, Turdus merula. — At Cromer l.h., Feb. 12th, two 
killed against lantern, with thirteen Larks at midnight o.m. 

Redbreast, Erithacus ruhecula. — At Whitby l.h., March 1st, 
daylight, a flock of Robins. 

Bluethroat, Rutidlla suecica. — At Heligoland, May 22nd, all 
males — perhaps one in ten a female. 

Redstart, Ruti cilia phoenicurus. — At Heligoland, May 1st to 
10th, all males. Thenceforward females increasing. May 4th, 
E. by S. or E. by N., millions all males ; 19th, all females. 

Wheatear, Saxicola oenanthe. — At Teesmouth 5 Buoy l.v., 
April 23rd, W.S.W., many, with Wagtails, passing to land. At 
Heligoland, March 31st, S.E., to April 3rd, S.E., male birds; 
and to May 1st, when females began to arrive. May 13th, E., 
all females. 



28 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

Greater Whitethroat, Sylvia ru/a. — At Cromer l.h., May 
18tli, 10 p.m., four killed and stunned against lantern. 

Wren, Tror/hxh/tes parvulns. — At Whitby l.h., March 22nd, 
E., several at daj'light. At Cromer l.h., May 16th, -4 a.m., one 
killed against lantern. 

Pied Wagtail, Motacilla luguhris. — At Teesmouth 5 Buoy l.v. 
(see Wheatear). At Whitby l.h., May 9th, da^^break, many. 

Sky Lark, Alauda arveusis. — At Cromer, Feb. 12th (see Black- 
bird). Feb. 16th to March 24th, several with Starlings killed 
and stunned during night. 

Short-toed Lark, Calandrella hrachydactyla. — At Heligoland, 
May 18th, a fine male captured. 

Tree Sparrow, Passer moiitanus. — At Outer Dowsing l.v., 
April 18th, 11 a.m., sixty to S.E.; two came on board. April 
26th, 3 p.m., hundreds to W.N.W. ; ten came on board. From 
the position of this lightvessel it will be apparent that in the 
first instance the Sparrows were making for the coast of Holland, 
and on 26th for the English coast. 

Starling, Stiiruus vulgaris. — At Cromer l.h., Feb. 16th 
to April 10th, several struck lantern and killed along with 
Larks. 

Carrion Crow, Corvm corone. — At Cockle l.v., June 8th, six 
to S.E. 

Cuckoo, Cuculus canorus. — At Fame Inner l.h.. May 26th, 
W. strong, one seen. At Hunstanton l.h., April 18th, heard 
close to lighthouse. 

Swallow, Hirundo rustica. — At Fame Inner l.h.. May 15th, 
two passed. x\t Teesmouth 5 Buoy l.v.. May 9th, 2 p.m., two 
from S.E. to N.W. ; May 22nd, great many S.E. to N.W., fresh 
breeze from W. At Hunstanton l.h., April 17th, one to S. ; 
19th, five to S. At Leman and Ower l.v., June 9th, five on 
board at sunset ; 21st, one at 11 a.m. At Cockle l.v., June 23rd 
and 24th, 4.20 a.m., two each day to W. At Corton l.v.. May 
22nd, one to W.N.W. ; 2oth, two to W.N.W. At Kentish Knock 
L.V., May 26th, 10 a.m., two very high to N.W. At East 
Goodwin l.v.. May 4th, 10 a.m., four S. to N. The observations 
tend to confirm what I have observed and remarked upon, that 
the Chimney Swallow in spring migrates in pairs ; even when in 
flocks the pairs may be distinguished, as the males and females 
keep close company. 



EAST COAST OF ENGLAND. 29 

Swift, Cypselus apus. — At Whitby l.h., May 14th, several at 
noon to N.W. At Spurn l.h., June 7th, 7 p.m., fifty perched on 
gallery, none killed. At Hunstanton l.h., May 17th, one. 

Wood Pigeon, Columha ixdumhus. — At Hasbro' l.v., May 
28th and 30th, one each day to E. 

Dotterel, Eudromias morinellus. — At Spurn l.h., May 15th, 
four seen near Kilnsea ; 25th, small flock of eight. 

Kinged Plover, ^Egialitis hiaticnla. — At Teesmouth 5 Buoy 
L.V., April 2nd, first arrival at their breeding quarters on neigh- 
bouring sand, where about ten couples nest each year, leaving 
with the young in the autumn. 

LiMicoL^. — From the 1st to the 18th of May, northerly and 
easterly winds blew persistently day and night on to the Lincoln- 
shire coast ; the consequence was that we had an almost entire 
dearth of all those many flocks of shore birds — as Godwit, Grey 
Plover, Knot — which visit the Humber mud-flats during the first 
fortnight in May, on their passage to the north. On the opposite 
coast of Yorkshire, under shelter of the sandy promontory of 
Spurn, they assembled in large numbers, feeding daily on the 
great expanse of muds left uncovered at ebb, and at flood crossing 
to the sands on the sea side of Spurn. A correspondent writes 
that, on May 7th, ** countless thousands of waders lined the 
beach, like wreck, on the sea- side about a mile above Spurn; 
there were more than had ever been seen at once before." 

Anatid^. — At Flamborough l.h., July 2nd, a flock of Grey 
Geese were seen flying N. At Goodwin l.v., June 6th, 7.30 a.m., 
a flock flying to the E. Mr. Gatke reports from Heligoland that, 
on May 19th, three Snow Geese, Anser niveus, passed boat quite 
close, "whiter than snow, bills and feet redder than oranges, but 
alas ! no gun at hand." King Eider, Somateria spectahilis, is 
reported from the Fame Isles on May 29th, and during the 
summer (Zool., 1880, p. 514 ; 1881, p. 62). On Feb. 27th, 1880, 
large flocks of Widgeon came into the Tees, and thirteen were 
shot by one discharge of a single-barrelled shoulder-gun. At the 
Outer Dowsing l.v., April 18th, Wild Ducks were seen migrating 
to N.W. ; and on April 30th, every hour during day, to N.N.W. 
At the Goodwin l.v.. May 19th, shoals of Ducks from W. to E. 
From the Teesmouth 5 Buoy l.v., May 25th, 11.30 a.m., my 
correspondent writes, " Saw two Sheldrakes leave their nest with 
ten young ones at low water ; had to travel half a mile before 



80 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

they reached the water ; the male kept ahout six yards hehind 
the young, the female leading; they were fifteen minutes in 
reaching the water; appeared just hatched; cock hird often 
looked behind to see nobody was coming." With reference to 
the spring migration of Wild Geese, Major Russell sends me the 
following notes from a correspondent on the Essex coast, whose 
house is situated on the south slope of a steep high hill : — " The 
Grey Geese were seen on Saturday, Feb. 21st, from 600 to 1000 
flying in a triangular form, in a N.E. direction. I have 
repeatedly seen them sometimes passing for whole days, and 
have always noticed that we have never had any winter to speak 
of afterwards. They generall}^ fly about a mile high. We very 
seldom see them going south. I suppose because the days are 
shorter, or possibly some may go another way ; but they 
generally go north about this time of the year. I used to try to 
shoot them with a rifle to see what sort of Geese they were." 

Alcid^. — At Longstone l.h., March 9th, Guillemots and 
Razorbills assembled; 24th, Puffins. At Flamborough l.h., 
May 3rd, hundreds of Puffins arriving throughout the day, and on 
the same day a great number of Guillemots. From May 28th to 
June 2nd, great numbers of Guillemots and Razorbills were seen 
all day in the neighbourhood of the Spurn l.v., at sea six miles 
S.S.E. Spurn Point. The Guillemots, Razorbills and Puffins 
are later in their arrival and departure at the southern than 
their northern breeding-stations. 

Pelecanid^. — At Longstone l.h., March 9th, numbers of 
Gannets flying N. At the Fame Inner l.h., April 16th, from 
9 a.m. to 1 p.m., Gannets were seen flying N. At Teesmouth 
5 Buoy L.V., March 15th, twelve Cormorants came into Tees, 
about fifty in every year at this time, leave again after breeding- 
season till next March. 

Larid^. — At Fame Islands, April 8th, Gulls commenced 
assembling at their nesting-quarters. At Whitby l.h., Feb. 18th, 
Herring Gulls first appeared on the cliffs near lighthouse. 
July 4th, first young was seen on,the wing. Sept. 2nd, all left, 
both young and old. At Spurn l.v.. May 28th to June 2nd, 
large numbers of Gulls were seen all day in the neighbourhood, 
along with Guillemots and Razorbills ; these birds were probabl}^ 
not migrating, or even contemplating such a movement, but 
wanderers from Flamborough, following the shoals of small fry 



East coast of England. 31 

which approach the Humber about that period. At the Long- 
stone L.H., April 29th, W., weather fine, first Sandwich Tern seen, 
and the last seen Sept. 8th. The Arctic Tern was first seen 
May 10th; last, Sept. 14th. At the Fame Inner l.h.. Sandwich 
Terns were seen on May 12th, and the Arctic May 15th, both 
species leaving together on Aug. 28th. The Siberian Herring 
Gull, Larus affinis, was seen at Heligoland on June 5th, and the 
Caspian Tern, Sterna Caspia, on the 22nd, the first Mr. Gatke 
has got there. July 23rd, repeatedly seen. 

GENEKAL SUMMARY SPRING MIGRATION. 

Compared with the autumn notes on migration, the spring 
reports are very meagre, and few and far between. This is 
probably due to the fact that in the spring birds migrate, with 
rare exceptions, at night ; and, as the weather is then finer, and 
the nights clearer and shorter, they do not run their heads so 
much against the lanterns of lighthouses and lightships. The 
spring migration is also carried on much more leisurely, migrants 
proceeding by easy stages northward, and we have none of those 
great rushes which are so characteristic of the autumn migration, 
when, with sudden changes of weather, flock after flock pour 
continually during the whole day and night on to our east coast. 
In the spring also the males of the Insessores migrate some time 
in advance of the females, as is very clearly shown in the 
Heligoland notes, as well as by the well-known arrival of our 
summer immigrants, as the Nightingale, Whitethroat, &c. The 
notes on spring migration taken in 1879, as well as in 1880, seem 
to point to the conclusion that, during the vernal migration, 
migrants strike the lanterns of lighthouses from 11 p.m. to the 
dawn of day, the majority after midnight ; and not in the early 
hours of night, as is the case in the autumn. 

AUTUMN MIGEATION, 1880. 

SEPARATE REPORT ON EACH SPECIES. 

White-tailed Eagle, Haliceetus alhicilla. — At Heligoland, 
Sept. 10th, S.S.E., windy, eight or ten. 

Peregrine Falcon, Falco peregrinus. — At Heligoland, Oct. 
24th, '' all latter time and F, cesalon, scattered." As in every 
autumn a few on passage have been recorded in the eastern 



82 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

counties ; one, an immature male, was shot near Spurn on 
Jan. 1st, 1881. 

Hobby, Falco suhhuteo. — At Heligoland, June 19tli and 20th, 
S.E., some. 

Kestrel, Falco tiinitinculus. — At Heligoland, Sept. 25tli, S., 
very little wind, a great many, few old. 

Sparrowhawk, Accipiter iiisns. — At Heligoland, enormous 
numbers crossed in the autumn, commencing Aug. 7th, eight 
or ten young birds ; from thence to Sept. 18th, almost daily in 
greater or less numbers, all young birds. Sept. 29th, evening, 
the first old birds. Oct. 9th, young interspersed with old ; 
20th, many ; 28th, still daily. An enormous majority of these 
must pass down the European coast, as the notices on our 
east coast are few and far between. At the Outer Dowsing l.v., 
Oct. 8th, one at sunset flying round lantern. At Leman and 
Ower L.v., Oct. 6th, 4.30 p.m., one to S.E. At Gorton, l.v., 
Oct. 9th, one settled on ship. At Heligoland, Mr. Gatke says 
Sparrowhawks often arrive towards evening. 

Common Buzzard, Buteo vulgaris. — At Heligoland, Sept. 18th, 
many. 

Honey Buzzard, Pernis apivorus. — At Heligoland, Sept. 10th, 
with Sparrowhawks. 

KouGH-LEGGED BuzzARD, Buteo lagopus. — At Heligoland, June 
19th and 20th, some. There was a considerable flight on to the 
east coast in October, Mr. J. H. Gurney recording (Zool., 1880, 
p. 570) about a dozen in Norfolk between Oct. 16th and the end 
of the month. Two were shot Nov. 1st on the Lincolnshire coast 
near Mabblethorpe, and one at Spurn later in the season. 
Several others have been recorded from time to time in the 
* Field' and local papers, as either seen or. obtained in various 
parts of England and Scotland. The following notices from the 
lighthouses may or may not refer to this species. At Whitby l.h., 
July 24th, 9 a.m., a large Hawk going S. At Hasbro' l.h., Oct. 
24th, 11 a.m., four very large birds with heavy flight to S. At 
Kentish Knock, l.v., Oct. 13th, one very large Hawk soaring 
overhead. At Gorton l.v., Oct. 19th, a large brown Hawk 
about ship — may perhaps have been a female Kestrel. 

Hen Harrier, Circus cyaneus. — At Heligoland, Oct. 20th, 
some. 

Long-eared Owl, Asio otus, — At Heligoland, Oct. 22nd, some. 



I 



EAST COAST OF ENGLAND. 33 

At Spurn, Oct. 28th, one shot. At Hasbro' l.v., Sept. 30th, 
10 a.m., o. m. from E. to S.W., horned owl — probably this 
species. The Long-eared Owls arrive on our east coast, as a 
rule, later than Asio accijyitrinus, and in much less numbers. 

Short-eared Owl, Asio accipitrinus. — At Heligoland, Sept. 
25th, S., very little wind, great many. Oct. 20th, again great 
many ; 22nd, thousands. On our east coast they arrived in very 
considerable numbers in October. At Inner Fame l.h., Nov. 
16th, 4 p.m., one. At Coquet Island l.h., Oct. 7th to Nov. 16th, 
with northerly and easterly winds, and from 6 a.m. to 7 p.m., 
eight. At Teesmouth 5 Buoy l.v., Oct. 4th to 27th, twelve, 
10 a.m. to 4 p.m., going E. to W. At Teesmouth, Oct. 3rd to 
24th, nine. At Spurn, Sept. 29th, one shot ; Oct. 19th and 
following week, many ; 27th, several. On Lincolnshire coast, 
Oct. 19th and following week, very great many. At Inner 
Dowsing L.V., Nov. 4th, 7.30 a.m., one N.E. to S.W. At 
Dudgeon l.v., Oct. 5th, noon, one to W. ; 23rd, 10.20 a.m., one 
to S.W. At Lynn Well l.v., Oct. 5th, 11 a.m., one; 4 p.m., one 
Grey Owl N.W. to S. At Leman and Ower l.v., Oct. 1st, one 
caught at noon. Many also arrived about Oct. 19th on the 
Norfolk coast. I have no notices of Short-eared Owls south of 
Yarmouth. The ''great rush" took j)lace on night of Oct. 18th 
or morning of 19tli, the Woodcock arriving at the same time with 
a north w^ind. Heavy snow from north on Oct. 20th. The 
"great rush" over Heligoland was on Oct. 22nd. 

Barn Owl, Aluco flammeus. — At Yarmouth, Oct. 19th, 
morning, one seen coming in from the sea. 

Tengmalm's Owl, Nyctala Tengmahm. — On Oct. 22nd a very 
fine example of this small Owl was shot at Saltfleet, on the 
Lincolnshire coast ; wind strong from the north on 21st. 
Another was shot in Felyingdales, Yorkshire, near Kobin Hood's 
Bay, late in December. At Heligoland, Nov. 22nd and 23rd, 
Hawk Owl, Surnia funerea, was seen flying about, but never 
within shot. 

Great Grey Shrike, Laiiiiis excuhitor. — At Heligoland, Oct. 
14th, N.W., windy, four fine old birds, pure white underneath ; 
16th, some ; 17th, some ; major, one. Nov. 10th, one fine old 
male. There was a very considerable immigration on to the east 
coast in October. At Spurn, one was seen during the first week 
in October, and subsequently in that month and early in 

F 



34 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

November, many. The last from that locaHty I have a note of 
was a female, shot at Patrington, Hoklerness, on Jan. 20th, 1881. 
At Whiteley Sands, Northumberland, one early in October. One 
shot near Hartlepool Nov. 17th. One at FJamborough Head 
first week in October. Mr. J. H. Gurney has also recorded 
three shot in Norfolk in October ; and many others have been 
mentioned in the ' Zoologist ' and ' Field ' as occurring in various 
parts of the country. One also was shot at North Kelsey, in 
Lincolnshu'e, at the end of February. 

Spotted Flycatcher, Muscicapa grisola. — At Heligoland, 
June 3rd, some ; July 13tli, some ; Aug. 25th, many ; Sept. 3rd, 
N.W., 11 a.m., some; 9th, great many ; 16th, some ; 26th, less, 
passage varying over four months. At Fame Inner l.v., Sept. 
15th, great many Flycatchers.* At Swin Middle l.v., Aug. 28th, 
0. m., many with Starlings round lantern. 

Pied Flycatcher, Muscicapa luctuosa {atricapilla, Linn.) — At 
Heligoland, Aug. 11th, E., fine, great many young birds, first 
arrivals, and so on to 24th, when they passed in '' coufitless 
numbers " ; 27th, still passing, but in less numbers ; Sept. 8th, 
many ; 13th, great many with others in potato-fields ; 26th, less 
numerous; 27th, few. From Aug. 11th to end of Sept., about 
forty-seven days; "great rush" on Aug. 24th, none recorded 
from English coast. 

Eed-breasted Flycatcher, Muscicapa parva. — At Heligoland, 
Sept. 26th, one shot in Mr. Giitke's garden, and another obtained 
Oct. 21st. 

Mistletoe Thrush, Turdus viscivorus. — At Casquets l.h., 
Alderney, Oct. 2nd, 11 p.m. to 2 a.m., with Ring Ouzels and 
Larks going ^Y., six Mistletoe Thrushes striking. 

Song Thrush, Turdus musicus. — At Heligoland, Sept. 16th, 
some numbers with Ring Ouzels ; 24th, many of both ; 25th, 
both all day ; Oct. 6th, with Redwings, and on 16tli with 
Redwings and Fieldfares ; 20th, with Blackbirds and Redwings ;. 
22nd, few; altogether, between Sept. 16th and Oct. 22nd, large 
numbers crossed the island. On the English side of the North 

* The term "Flycatcher" seems to be used somewhat indiscriminately 
for many of the small insect-catching birds. Some of these in this case are 
probably — as they are associated with Wheatears — Kedstarts At the Long- 
stone L.H., also on the same date, several Redstarts appeared, both species 
mi;:rrating together and at the same time. 



EAST COAST OF ENGLAND. 85 

Sea, Thrushes occurred at twelve stations covering the entire 
length of coast. At Fame Inner l.h., Oct. 29th, several. Nov. 
20th, 22nd, 23rd, all day, with Blackbirds, Fieldfares, and Ked- 
wings ; 26th, with Blackbirds. At Teesmouth 5 Buoy l.v., 
Oct. 22nd, several and a few Eedwings going E. to W., great 
many stopped on board and appeared very tired, early part of 
day foggy ; 25th, several S.E. to N.W. At Whitby l.h., Nov. 23rd, 
snow, large flocks at intervals flying high. At Flamborough l.h., 
Oct. 21st, day and night. At Spurn l.h., Oct. 5th and 7th, many. 
At Great Cotes, about Oct. 19th, many. Dec. 9th, second arrival. 
At Cromer l.h., Aug. 3rd, midnight, three killed. Sept. 25th, 
1.30 a.m., two killed. Dec. 10th, 8 p.m., two killed. At Leman 
and Ower l.v., Sept. 28th and 29th, during night. At Hasbro' l.h., 
Oct. 26th, 10 p.m., with a great many small birds, some killed. 
At Corton l.v., Oct. 22nd, continuous after daylight, E. to W., 
with Larks and Blackbirds, and again Nov. 7th. At Galloper l.v., 
Nov. 1st, 9 a.m., forty S.E. to N.W. : 2nd, 10 p.m. to sunrise, 
with Larks, Starlings, and Blackbirds, from E. S.E. to N.W., about 
120 killed; 9th, about eighty to N.W. during night. At Kentish 
Knock L.V., Oct. 10th, one. At Gull l.v., Oct. 25th, with Larks and 
Linnets continuously all day. "Great rush," 19th to 26th Oct. 
There was a " second rush" Dec. 9th and 10th, preceding the 
outbreak of Arctic weather on Dec. 13th. Line of migration 
E. to W., S.E. to N.W. Time over which migration extended 
(exclusive of occurrences in December, as probably referring to 
local movements caused by severe weather) from Aug. 3rd, 
Cromer, to Nov. 26th, Fame Islands, or 126 days. 

Fieldfare, Turdus pilaris. — At Heligoland, Oct. 16th, N.W. 
and easterly, in great numbers high overhead ; 25th, some ; 28th, 
numerous ; and after this Fieldfares, Thrushes, and Blackbirds 
occasionally till first week in December. On the East Coast of 
England occur at ten stations from Fame Islands to Yarmouth. 
At Inner Fame l.h., Oct. 25th, forenoon, flocks to W. ; 27th, 
same ; Nov. 16th, flock. At Coquet Island l.h., Oct. 26th, 7 a.m., 
half-a-dozen. At Teesmouth 5 Buoy l.v., Oct. 25th, 9 a.m., three, 
S.E. to N.W. Nov. 5th, 10 a.m., great many to W.; 20th, 11a.m., 
large flocks from E.; 27th, great many E. to W. At Flam- 
borough L.H., Oct. 21st;, day and night, five killed. At Spurn l.h., 
Oct. 26th, 27th, 28th, great many. At Great Cotes, Dec. 9th, 
many, '' second rush." At Corton l.v., Oct. 5th, one over ship, 



36 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

E.toW. Jan. 15tb, 12.45 p.m., high overhead, W.S.W. At 
Galloper l.v., Nov. 1st, 9 a.ra., fifteen, S.E. to N.W. At Yarmouth, 
Oct. 17th and 18th, early morning, very high. Mr. T. Southwell, 
of Norwich, saw a large flock near that city on Sept. 9th.* Ex- 
cluding Great Cotes as referring perhaps to local movement from 
outburst of severe w-eather in the North, the Fieldfares were seen 
on their migration, first near Norwich, Sept. 9th and last at 
Teesmouth, Nov. 27th— eighty days. ''Great rush" Oct. 21st 
to 28th. 

Eedwing, Tardus iliacus. — At Heligoland, Sept. 6th, first 
flocks. Oct. 16th, N.W. and easterly, in great numbers, very high ; 
20th, many. English coast five stations from Fame Island to 
Yarmouth. At Fame Inner l.h., Oct. 29tli, many. At Spurn 
L.H., Oct. 5tli, plentiful. At Great Cotes, Dec. 9th, many, 
*' second rush." At Hunstanton l.h., Sept. 18th, 10 p.m., one 
caught. At Y^armouth, Oct. 17th and 18th, with Fieldfares, very 
high. From Sept. 6th, Heligoland, to Oct. 29th, Fame Islands, 
fifty-four days ; " great rush" middle of October. 

Blackbird, Turdiis merula. — At Heligoland, Oct. 19th, some ; 
20th, many ; 28th, numerous. At Fame Inner l.h., Oct. 21st 
and 29th, one each day ; Nov. 20th, 22nd, 23rd and 26th, many ; 
" great rush" on these four days. At Coquet l.h., Nov. 20th, all 
day. Dec. 19th, many, with Larks and Plover. At Whitby l.h., 
Aug. 1st, at daylight, the first seen this year. Oct. 24th and 26th, 
several at daj'light. At Flamborough l.h., Oct. 21st, day and 
night. At Spurn l.h., Oct. 27th, old cocks. Nov. 20th, Black- 
birds in considerable numbers, with Thrushes, Redwings, and 
Fieldfares. At Great Cotes, Sept. 27th, young cocks. Oct. 19th, 
many. At Outer Dowsing l.v., Oct. 22nd, 3 p.m., four old males, 
E.S.E. to W. Nov. 26th, 1 p.m., three males, E.S.E. to W. At 
Cromer l.h., Nov. 6th, three. At Hasbro' l.h., 11 p.m., two struck, 
killed. At Corton l.v., Oct. 22nd, continuous after daylight, 
E. to W. Nov. 7th, 11 a.m. to sunset, with Thrushes; 9th, 
W. by N., several flocks to S.W., very low. At Galloper l.v., 
Oct. 22nd, 8.40 a.m., about four hundred and three hundred 
Starlings to S.W. ; 31st, sixty; Nov. 2nd, about one hundred during 
night, thirty killed, to N.W. at sunrise ; 6th, 10 p.m. to sunrise, 



'■^'- A flock of twcuty-five were Seen at Woodham Mortimer, Essex, on 
Sept. Gtli. See ' Field,' Oct. 2ud. 



EAST COAST OF ENGLAND. 37 

about fifty; 9th, 10 p.m. to sunrise, sixty. At Casquets l.h., 
Alclerney, Oct. 13th to 17th, Blackbirds at midnight. Are noticed 
at thirteen stations from the Fame Islands to Alderney. Great 
numbers appear to have crossed ; at Heligoland commenced 
passing later than any other of the Meruliche. There was a 
"great rush" on to the English coast, especially over the Gorton 
and Galloper light-vessels, from Oct. 19th to 22nd; a "second 
rush" northwards of Spurn on Nov. 20th. Migrate both by day 
night ; direction of flight E. to W. or S.E. to N.W. 

Ring Ouzel, Turdus torquatus,-^ At Heligoland began moving 
very early in the season. Sept. 9th, some, with T. miisicus ; 24th, 
many; 25th, great many, whole day, passing on. Oct. 7th, many, 
young birds ; 27th, some. None recorded at any station on the 
English coast, which is rather remarkable.* At the Casquets l.h., 
Aug. 16th, midnight, misty, " Ring-Thrushes," four striking. 
Sept. 6tli, midnight, N.E., rain, four struck. Oct. 2nd, 11 p.m., 
rain, four struck, and again on the 7th, 3 a.m., rain, four struck. 
Ring Ouzels were moving along the French coast as early as 
Aug. 16th ; over Heligoland Sept. 9th to Oct. 27th. A very fine 
example of Tardus Naumanii (the first that has occurred there), 
a young bird, was captured on Oct. 10th ; N.E., windy. 

HEDGESPARROw,^cce/ifo?' modularis. — At Heligoland, Sept. 26th, 
pretty large numbers, first comers. Oct. 5th, great many in 
garden ; 8th, great many ; 9th, same. At Spurn l.h., Oct. 17th, 
very abundant. At Great Cotes, Sept. 21st, in bean-fields near 
coast. Not observed at any other stations. 

Redbreast, Erithacus rubecida, — At Heligoland, from Sept. 9th 
to Oct. 9th, great numbers passing over island. At Coquet l.h., 
Sept. 10th and 16th, 10 a.m., one each day. Oct. 23rd, 5 p.m., 
one caught on glass. Dec. 28th, noon, one. At Whitby l.h., 
Sept. 27th, 10 a.m., a large flock of small birds containing many 
Robins remained a few hours and then went S. At Hunstanton 
L.H., Sept. 5th, one. At Northrepps, Norfolk, Oct. 14th and 15th, 
many noticed, evidently immigrants. At Hanois l.h., Guernsey, 
Aug. 14tli, midnight. Redbreasts with many other birds, some 
killed. 



'■'' Lord Lilford (ZooL, 1881, p. 24) records the first Ring Ouzel of the 
season in North Northamptonshire on Sept. 21st ; and two are also recorded 
in ' Tlie Zoologist' (1881, p. 26), as seen near Harwich, Oct. 10, 1880. 



38 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

Bluethroat, Ruticilla suecica. — At Heligoland, Sept. 9th, E., 
fine, several; 17th, N.E., wmd, much rain, many. 

Redstart, Ruticilla phaniicurus. — At Heligoland, Aug. 12th 
and 13th, young birds. Sept. 3rd, 11 a.m., N.W., great many; 
8th, many ; 9th, great many ; 16th, many, about half old birds ; 
17th, enormous numbers, same ; 25th and 26th, many. At 
Longstone l.h., Sept. loth, several on reef. At Fame Inner l.h., 
Sept. 15th, many " fly-catchers" with Wheatears (see notes, Fly- 
catcher, M. grisola). At Teesmouth, many amongst the bents 
which grow upon the Tees breakwater earl}^ in September (not 
previously noted in this locality). At Flamborough, last week in 
August, great many. At Spurn, Sept. 3rd, many, left to a bird 
night of 3rd. At Northrepps, Aug. 30th and 31st, "swarming.'' At 
Yarmouth, large numbers first week in September. At Ship wash 
L.V., Aug. 30th, 2 p.m. to 7 p.m., large numbers to W.N.W. The 
immigration of this species is very interesting from the large and 
unusual numbers which can be traced along the east coast from 
the Fame Islands to the Ship wash l.v., off the mouth of the 
Thames. The}' arrived along the entire length of the coast 
during the latter part of August and early in September. At the 
Shipwash l.v., the most southern station, they were going 
W.N.W. , and at all other stations, after touching land, 
evidently followed the coast-line to the south. The migration 
was confined very closely to the coast, the birds going but a short 
distance inland. In nearly every case they migrated in company 
with or at at the same time as the Wheatear. 

Stonechat, Saxicola rubicola. — At Heligoland, Aug. 11th, 
young. Sept. 3rd, 11a.m., great many; 9th, same. Oct. 1st, 
2nd and 3rd, old birds. 

Whinchat, Saxicola nihetra. — At Heligoland, Aug. 23rd, great 
many young birds, the first of them ; 24th, also great many. 
October, first week, old birds. Mouth of Deben river, Suffolk 
coast, Nov. 1st. 

Wheatear, Saxicola aenanthe. — At Heligoland, July 5th, small 
flights, young birds; 24tli, same. Sept. 16th, great many, about 
half old birds. At Fame Inner'L.H., Aug. 10th, several. Sept. 
15th, forty to fifty. At Teesmouth 5 Buoy l.v., Aug. 30th, 10 a.m., 
fog, two came on board. Sept. 10th, great many Wheatears from 
S.E., and "several small birds of a dark green colour" (Red- 
starts?), some on deck. At Teesmouth, Sept. 10th, an unusually 



EAST COAST OF ENGLAND. 39 

large number along the banks between Hartlepool and Sneaton 
Snook, also Kedstarts. At Flamborough, last week in August, in 
great numbers, with Eedstarts. At Spurn, Sept. 3rd, with some 
Eedstarts. Oct. 27th, last seen, an old bird. At Great Cotes, 
September, first fortnight, very great many. At Northrepps, 
Aug. 30th and 31st, great numbers and Kedstarts. Altogether 
there was a very large immigration on the east coast from the 
Fame Islands to Yarmouth the last week in August and early in 
September. 

Saxicola deserti, Kupp.,* a fine old male, in perfect summer 
plumage, occurred at Heligoland on June 23rd, wind W., calm, 
warm. Saxicola leucura, Aug. 11th, E., fine, one, undoubtedly, 
but not shot. 

Sylviid^. — Of the small warblers, Hypolais icterina, a fine 
male occurred in Heligoland on June 3rd ; the same day some 
Willow Wrens and one Sylvia riridanus, a fine female, shot in 
Mr. Gatke's garden, making the third Heligoland example. On 
July 13th, Whitethroats ; 24th, young Willow Wrens. On Aug. 
24th, great many, also some Whitethroats and Garden Warblers ; 
27th, Willow Wrens in less numbers, and again in increased 
numbers on Sept. 3rd ; on the 9th Chiff chaffs commenced 
migrating, also a great many Willow Wrens and Whitethroats 
came ; on the 15th, forenoon, Willow Wrens and Sedge Warblers, 
great many in potato - fields ; again, on 16th, S.E., calm, sunny, 
warm, Willow Wrens, Chiffchaffs and Garden Warblers, great 
many, less numbers of Blackcaps ; 17th, Willow Wrens, Chiff- 
chaffs and Garden Warblers, less of the latter ; 25th, westerly. 
Willow Wrens, and great numbers of Chiffchaffs, Garden War- 
blers, Blackcaps and Whitethroats; the same day, P. sujjerciliosus, 
one fine bird shot ; besides this a large PJiylloscojyus, with very 
conspicuous wing-bar, was seen. Again, on the 26th, another 
P. siiperciliosus, and in the evening many Chiffchaffs, Garden 
Warblers and Blackcaps ; 27th, Chiffchaffs, Garden Warblers, 
Blackcaps and Whitethroats ; 28th, some Chiffchaffs ; 30th, 



* It is worthy of note that on the same day a fine example of Papilio 
podalirius, the scarce Swallow-tail, was taken on the island. This butterfly 
was added to the British list on the authority of Haworth, but no authenti- 
cated British specimen is known : its occurrence on Heligoland adds to the 
probability of its capture in England, \_8axicola deserti also occurred at 
Alloa, in Scotland, on Nov. 28th, 1880.— J. A. H. B.] 



40 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

Chiffcliaffs, Garden Warblers, one P. siqyerciliosus seen, a grey 
Phylloscopus seen, tristis ! Some more Chiffcliafifs, with many 
other birds, Oct. 8th, and one P. siiperciliosiis ; Chiffchaffs again 
on 9th, 10th and 11th; 13th, Willow Wrens, great numbers all 
this latter time also. After the middle of October the migration 
of the Sylviidce appears to have ceased. At Flamborough a 
Willow W^ren was caught on the morning after the great storm 
on the night of Oct. 28tli, and at Spurn on morning of 28tli a 
female Blackcap was shot by Mr. W. Eagle Clarke. 

Golden-crested Wren, Eefjidiis rristatiis. — At Heligoland, 
Sept. 9th, great many, first comers ; 25tli, some ; 27th, 29tli and 
30th, some. Oct. 4th, great many ; 5tli, also man}- with some 
li. iyuicdpillus, Eire-crested Wrens, first comers ; 8tli, great many 
Golden; 11, also great many; 22nd, daily some. At Longstone 
L.H., Oct. 22nd, one. At Earne Inner l.h., Sept. 15th, 9 a.m., 
E.N.E., six. Oct. 12th and 13th, several all day. At Coquet 
Island L.H., Oct. 14th, N.W., one. Nov. 9th, 11 p.m., N.W., gale, 
one caught on glass. At Elamborough l.h., Oct. 8th, hundreds 
seen. At Spurn l.h., Sept. 15th, E.N.E., first seen. Oct. 5th 
and 7th, plentiful; 15th, about a dozen, one caught; 17th, several; 
26th, one seen. At Hasbro' l.v., Oct. 17th, 3 p.m., E.S.E. to 
W.N.W., two. At Cockle l.v., Aug. 18th, one caught on deck. 
Oct. 9th and 18th, one each day also. On Suffolk coast, mouth 
of Deben, Nov. 1st, Goldcrests. At Kentish Knock l.v., Oct. 1st, 
one ; 10th, two on board. At Shipwash l.v., Sept. 1st, 6 to 8 p.m., 
large numbers to N.W. Dec. 8th, 10 a.m., flock to W.S.W. At 
Hanois l.h., Aug. 14th, o. m., N., Goldcrests, some killed. Eirst 
observed at the Guernsey lighthouse, Aug. 14th ; last at Coquet 
Island, Nov. 9th. Migration extending over eighty-eight days. 

Wren, Troglodytes parvidus. — At Earne Inner l.h., Nov. 23rd, 
several. At Whitby l.h., Sept. 27th, 10 a.m., Wrens with many 
other small birds, remaining a few hours and then going south. 
At Spurn l.h., Sept. 21st, one caught on lantern. At Great Cotes, 
early in October, many. At East Goodwin l.v., 10 a.m., four 
from N.W. came on board. 

Parid^e. — Oct. 14th, N.W., windy. Great Titmouse {Panis 
major-), some; Blue Titmouse (P. ccsruleus), a great many passed 
over in the afternoon of Oct. 10th, N.E., windy ; and again a great 
many on the 11th, under the same conditions. At Great Cotes, 
Oct. 14th, Great Tit, many ; Blue, some ; and Coal Titmouse 



EAST COAST OF ENGLAND. 41 

(Parus ater), a few. Dec. 9th, P. majoi\ several, "second rush." 
Migratory flocks of the Long-tailed Titmouse {Acredida rosea) 
occurred near Cromer in October. 

MoTAciLLiD^. — At Heligoland, Aug. 27th, Blue-headed and 
White Wagtails {Motacilla flava and alha), great many young 
birds. Sept. 1st, M. flava, pretty large numbers with other birds, 
all restless, passing over; 9th, E., fine. Yellow Wagtail, Budytes 
(M. Rail), great many; 15th, forenoon, M, flava, astounding 
numbers, late in afternoon in great flights overhead, going north 
to south ; 27th, M. alha, some. The only migration of Wagtails 
over Heligoland in August and September, with one exception, 
appears to have been confined to these two well-known European 
species — the Blue-headed and White Wagtails of the Continent. 
The Grey Wagtail {M. sidjjhurea) was first observed at Great 
Cotes first week in October, and on Norfolk Coast, Sept. 25th. 

Tkee Pipit, Anthus trivialis. — At Heligoland, Aug. 22nd, young 
birds ; 23rd, same ; 24th, same, but less numbers ; 26th, Meadow 
Pipit {A. ])ratensis), great many (oftentimes with smart breeze), 
also many Tree Pipits; 31st, Kichard's Pipit (A. Richardi), one. 
Sept. 1st, Tree Pipits, pretty large numbers; 9th, E., fine. Tree 
and Meadow Pipits, great many, and two A. Richardi seen ; 15th, 
forenoon, Kichard's Pipit, some, once seven together, none shot ; 
late in afternoon. Meadow Pipits, great flights. Tree Pipits less ; 
16th, Tawny Pipit {A. campestris), two; 27th, Meadow Pipits, 
a few. Oct. 6th, Meadow Pipits with Larks in great flights passing 
overhead. At Coquet l.h., October, 9 a.m., half a score Titlarks. 
At Spurn, Sept. 6th, migrating with Swallows, but in separate 
flocks, bents full of Titlarks arriving from sea, came from N.E., 
wind W. At Leman and Ower l.v., Sept. 13th, Titlarks, numbers 
on board, fifteen caught. At Swin Middle l.v., Aug. 29th, 6 p.m., 
two Titlarks and six species of small birds on board, left for W. 
At Casquets l.h., Aug. 18th, 2 a.m., about fifty struck. Sept. 6th, 
midnight to 3 a.m., twenty struck. Kock Pipit {A. ohscurus), 
Sept. 28th, first seen on Lincolnshire coast ; Sept. 22nd, on 
Norfolk coast. 

Shore Lark, Otocorijs aljjestris. — At Heligoland, Oct. 4th, about 
twenty ; 5th and 6th, some ; 17th, twenty to forty ; 19th, great 
many; 20th, flights from twenty to one hundred; 21st, great 
many ; 23rd, still larger flights ; 26th, a few. Also great numbers 
in November and up to Dec. 18th ; on Nov. 15th, thousands, in 

G 



42 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

flights of hundreds. On the English coast the occurrences of the 
Shore Lark have haen numerous. At Fame Islands, one shot in 
the autumn. At Scarborough, Mr. Roberts states that since the 
severe weather in January, 1881, Shore Larks in small flocks have 
visited the coast, and several have been shot and taken to him. 
At Spurn, Dec. 12th, flock of thirteen seen. My informant, who 
is well acquainted with the bird, says, ''resting apparently as 
I was within six yards of them." At Skegness, Lincolnshire coast, 
last week in October, eight shot. Near Bedford, Oct. 28th, several 
seen, two shot (' Field,' Nov. 6, 1880). On Norfolk coast a flock 
at Blakeney, which remained near the place for two months, and 
others near Yarmouth. At Dover two procured in December. 

Sky Lark, Alauda arvensis. — The entrances of the migration 
of the Sky Lark at the East Coast stations are far too numerous 
to note separately. In many cases they occupy a large portion 
of the returned schedules, and individually far outnumber any 
other species. At Heligoland the migration commenced Sept. 25th, 
already great many overhead ; 27th, 9 to 10 p.m., passing. Oct. 5th, 
morning, great many ; 6th, afternoon, great flights overhead ; 
19th, late in forenoon, great flights passing on ; 20th, with Star- 
lings, hundreds of thousands passing overhead and over the sea ; 
21st, same ; 27th considerable passage in the night ; 28tli, many 
thousands over the sea; and after this in flights through November 
and December. On our East Coast they are noticed at thirty-one 
of the stations making returns, from the Fame Islands to the 
Casquets, Alderney. At Fame Island l.h., Sept. 30th to Oct. 31st. 
At Coquet l.h., Dec. 19th. At Teesmouth 5 Buoy l.v., Sept. 25th 
to Nov. 21st. On Oct. 24th, all day, ''great rush." Nov. 21st, 
"second rush." At Teesmouth, Oct. 6th to 30th. At Whitby 
L.H., Oct. 14th to Nov. 23rd. At Flamborough in October. At 
Spurn L.H., Sept. 15th to Jan. 13th. At Spurn l.v., Oct. 6th to 
27th — from 9th to 15th every day continuous. At Great Cotes, 
September, last week, every day and on to Nov. 4th. At Outer 
Dowsing L.V., Oct. 13th to Dec. 6th; "great rush," Oct. 13th to 
end of month; "second rush," Nov. 12th. At Inner Dowsing 
L.V., Oct. 27th to Jan. 4th. At Cudgeon l.v., Oct. 4th to Dec. 15th ; 
"great rush," Oct. 17th and 20th, and night of 27th. At Lynn 
Well L.V., Oct. 5th to 23rd, on seven days great numbers; 11th, 
12th and 13th, continuous during day (" great rush"); after this, 
from Oct. 23rd to Jan. 3rd, in less numbers. On Jan. 1st, 2nd 



EAST COAST OF ENGLAND. 43 

and 3rd, with Knot ; sixteen Larks and fifteen Knots killed against 
lantern. At Hunstanton l.h., Oct. 8th, great many. At Cromer 
L.H., Sept. 20th to Jan. 2nd, eleven struck and killed. At Leman 
and Ower l.v., Sept. 28th to Oct. 27th, on eleven days, day and 
night ; Oct. 23rd, 26th and 27th, " great rush." At Hasbro' l.v., 
Sept. 1st to Oct. 22nd. At Hasbro' l.h., Sept. 13th to Dec. 27th, 
thirty killed. At Newarp l.v., Sept. 24th to Oct. 17th. At Cockle 
L.V., Sept. 27th to Oct. 22nd ; Oct. 11th and 22nd, continuous. 
At Corton l.v., Oct. 7th to Nov. 7th ; Oct. 22nd, continuous. At 
Galloper l.v., Oct. 9th to Nov. 11th, on seventeen days in large 
flocks, up to five hundred in a flock; Oct. 31st, 11 p.m., half a 
gale, thirty killed ; Nov. 2nd, 10 p.m. to sunrise, about same 
number, and many on night of 6th, with other birds. At Kentish 
Knock L.V., only on Oct. 17tli. At Shipwash l.v., Sept. 18th, 
Oct. 4th and 8th, Nov. 22nd ; all day, continuous on Oct. 4th. 
At Swin Middle l.v., Oct. 21st to Jan. 12th. At Tongue l.v., 
Sept. 27th to Oct. 30th ; " rush," Oct. 22nd. On Sept. 27th, hazy, 
fifty in ship round lantern at 11 p.m. ; when stars came out they 
left. At Goodwin l.v., Sept. 27th to Nov. 7th. At Gull l.v., 
Oct. 18th to Nov. 2nd. At Southsand Head l.v., Aug. 27th to 
Nov. 9th. At East Goodwin l.v., Oct. 8th to Jan. 12th. Enormous 
numbers crossed at these four Goodwin Stations. At Casquets 
L.H., Oct. 2nd, 11 p.m. to 2 a.m., sixty killed. 

The migration of the Lark was carried on all hours of day and 
night in all weathers from Aug. 27th to Jan. 12th. The " great 
rush" took place during the last fortnight in October, more 
crossing probably on the 22nd than any other day, and at Heligo- 
land on 20th and 21st. A " second rush" a month later, on or 
about Nov. 21st, and a "third rush" on the outbreak of severe 
weather in the second week in January this year. General line 
of direction E. to W., sometimes N.E. to S.W., but generally, like 
the majority of immigrants this season, with a strong trend from 
points south of east. It is remarkable, as shown by the returns, 
how frequentty Larks are associated in migration with Starlings, 
either in separate flocks or together ; in fact, the two species 
seem to be inseparable. In a large majority of instances these 
two meadow-feeders are associated as if impelled to migrate by a 
common cause. 

Wood Lark, Alaucla arhorea, — At Heligoland, Sept. 28th, 
four. 



44 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

Snow Bunting, Plecirophanes nivalis. — At Heligoland, Sept. 
17th, a few first arrivals ; Oct. 20th, great manj^ ; 2otli and 26th, 
a few ; Nov. 20th, still great numbers, but very few old birds. 
At Fame Inner l.h., Oct. 28th to Dec. 20th; ''rush," Nov. 16th, 
and again Dec. 20th. At Teesmouth 5 Buoy l.v., from Nov. 7th 
to the end of month, nearly on every day, immense numbers 
passed ; all came from N., and were going S.W. At Flamborough, 
Oct. 8th, first seen ; Jan. 13th, great many flocks. At Spurn l.h., 
third week in October, a few ; 29th, many, after great gale from 
E. and N.E. At Great Cotes, early in November, — 1st to 5th, — 
many ; 24th, enormous flocks. At Yarmouth, middle of October. 
At Harwich, Oct. 30th, many in Orwell river ; Nov. 4th, first 
flock seen near Dovercourt (Zool., 1881, p. 26). None are recorded 
from stations south of Harwich. The flocks consisted mainly of 
the young of the year and old females ; very few old male birds. 
The immigration of Snow Buntings on to the north-easterly 
coasts in four distinct rushes, viz., at the end of October, in 
November, December, and January, has been attended with 
corresponding depressions of the barometer and outbursts of 
Arctic weather, viz., the great gale E. to N.E., Oct. 28th, with 
heavy snow in Scotland ; Nov. 18th to 20th, sharp frosts and 
heavy snow-storms ; Dec. 14th and lotli, the same ; and Jan. 
11th and 12th, same. Mr. Giltke has observed for some years a 
very marked decrease in the number of Snow Buntings crossing 
Heligoland. There has been a very great increase in the number 
arriving on our east coast for the last six or seven winters, and it 
is probable that, like the Shore Lark and other Arctic birds, the 
line of migration now runs further to the west than formerly. 

Other Emherizince occurred as follows : — At Heligoland, 
Oct. 11th, Ortolan Bunting, Emheriza hortiilana, many young; 
24th, same ; Sept. 1st, pretty large numbers ; 8th and 9th, 
many ; 15th, great many in potato-lands ; 29th, Eeed Bunting, 
E. schcenicliiSf many ; Oct. 4th, great many ; 6th, same ; 
8th, great many; 11th, same. Yellow Bunting, E. citrinellay 
28th, many ; and same and Corn Buntings up to Nov. 20th, few 
old birds. Little Bunting, E. j^^isilla, Sept. 26th, one ; 30th, 
one ; Oct. 11th, one. On the east coast of England, at Great 
Cotes, Sept. 30th, E. schoeniclus, many. At Spurn, Oct. 26th, a 
few seen. At South-sand Head l.v., Aug. 29th, four to south. 

Chapfinch, Eringilla coelehs. — At Heligoland, Sept. 17th, 



EAST COAST OF ENGLAND. 46 

great many beginning to pass ; 25th, enormous numbers passing 
on high overhead in a westerly direction ; 26th, hundreds of 
thousands high overhead ; 27th, some ; 28th, thousands so high 
overhead that they cannot be seen, only their call-notes heard, 
all day long; Oct. 6th, 7th, and 8th, great many; 11th, same ; 
27th, still many passing. Great numbers have also arrived on 
the east coast ; they are noticed at fourteen stations, from the 
Fame Islands to the Goodwins. At Fame Inner l.h., Sept. 1st, 
2 a.m.. one killed against glass, S.W., misty. At Whitby l.h., 
Sept. 27th, "Finches," ''great rush," with many other species. 
At Great Cotes, Oct. 13th, very large flocks of females and young 
of the year about this date. At Dudgeon l.v., Oct. 16th, one male 
caught on deck; 28th, same; Dec. 5th, one same, going W. At 
Lynn Well l.v., Oct. 5th and 23rd, many S.E. to N.W. ; 25th, in 
smaller flocks to N.W. At Northrepps, Oct. 13th, Mr. J. H. Gurney 
saw a huge flock in a stubble-field on the cliff, which he thinks must 
have come in from the sea. At Leman and Ower l.v., Oct. 19th, 8 to 
12 p.m., o.m., six caught on deck. At Newarp l.v., 2 to 3 p.m., 
Oct. 6th, 14th, and 18th, each day to S.W. At Cockle l.v., Oct. 
6th, two on board caught. At Corton l.v., 7 p.m., several 
males alighted on deck; 15th, 6 p.m., one male caught. At 
Galloper l.v., Oct. 9th to Nov. 6th, on several days, sometimes 
with Larks, twelve Larks, nine Chaffinches killed night of Oct. 
9th, o. m., heavy rain. At Kentish Knock l.v., Oct. 7th, two at 
sunrise to S.W. ; 15th, two, male and female, caught ; 17th, 
W\S.W., three or four hundred very high to S.W. At Swin 
Middle l.v. Sept. 18th, sunrise to 10 a.m.. Chaffinches with 
Linnets to W. At Gull l.v., Sept. 28th, 9 to 11 a.m., continuous 
flocks of Linnets, Starlings, Chaffinches, and Mountain Sparrows 
to W., many of each on deck. The main immigration of the 
Chaffinch was from the middle of September to end of October, 
the bulk of the immigrants crossing south of Yarmouth. The 
"great rush" on or about Oct. 13th. 

Beambling, Fringilla montifringilla. — At Heligoland, Sept. 
25th, many ; 27th, some ; Oct. 8th, great many ; and on 27tli, 
still more, and also good many throughout November. On the 
English coast few have been observed. At Flamborough, Jan. 
13th, some large flocks. At Leman and Ower l.v., Oct. 6th, one 
male caught. 

Tree Sparrow, Passer montanus. — None are recorded as 



46 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

passing Heligoland. On our east coast they were observed at 
eleven stations, but none are recorded north of Spurn. In 
North-east Lincolnshire, Oct. 13th, very large flocks were seen 
about this date. At Dudgeon l.v., Oct. 5tli, "Sparrows" to W. 
At Newarp l.v., Oct. 25th, six going W. by N. At Gorton l.v., 
Oct. 7th, several alighted on ship for a short time, going E. to W. 
At Kentish Knock l.v., Oct. 9th, seven on board till squall had 
passed. At Shipwash l.v., Nov. 28th, flocks to N.N.W. At 
Tongue l.v., Sept. 28th, 11 a.m., o. m., about one hundred 
Sparrows on masthead ; Oct. 24th, twenty to W. at noon. At 
North Foreland l.h., from October to third week in December, 
hundreds ''mixed" were seen. At Goodwin l.v., Sept. 28tli to 
Nov. 5th, on five days, often with Larks to W. At Gull l.v., 
Sept. 28th, continuous with other birds from 9 to 11 a.m. to W. ; 
Oct. 16th, from 9 a.m. to 3 p.m., continuous to W. At East 
Goodwin l.v., Sept. 25th, Oct. 9th, and 11th, flocks flying about 
ship; 17th, flock from N.W. to S.E. ; Jan. 8th, about one 
hundred from W. to E. towards French coast. From Sept. 25th 
to Nov. 28th, the majority passing across at the most southern 
stations the four lightships on the Goodwin Sands. It is possible 
that some of the entries of "Sparrows," where not distinctly 
specified, may refer to the Common Sparrow, which is now 
recognised as a. regular immigrant. 

House Sparrow, Passer domesticiis. — At Heligoland, Mr. 
Giitke says, "Up towards the end of July all young Sparrows 
disappeared from the island," and "up to middle of September 
nearly all old Sparrows had also quitted the island." Oct. 10th, 
" Sparrows latterly influx," from which it appears that the local 
Sparrows leave, the young first, then the old, and their place is 
taken by a fresh arrival. At Spurn, last week in Nov., Mr. 
Hewetson saw an immense flock — hundreds upon hundreds — 
on the shore, evidently quite fresh arrivals ; amongst them was 
a Keed Bunting. At Outer Dowsing l.v., Sept. 26th, 5 p.m., 
twenty House Sparrows came on board, travelling from S.E. to 
N.W. ; and on Oct. 2nd, at 4 p.m., eight going E.S.E. to W. 
At Kentish Knock l.v., Oct: 10th, one Common Sparrow ; and on 
12th, two, till squall had passed, then to S.W. At Casquets l:h., 
Alderney, Oct. 13th to 17th, at midnight, Common Sparrows 
with Thrushes, Blackbirds, Starlings, and Wood Pigeons, to 
English coast. 



EAST COAST OF ENGLAND. 47 

Greenfinch, Coccothranstes chloris. — At Heligoland, Oct. 27th, 
many; Nov. 20th, great many. At Gorton l.v., Oct. 31st, one, 
a male, caught. 

Goldfinch, Cardiielis elegans — At Heligoland, Oct. 27th, 
some ; also through November and December ; on Dec. 17th, 
great many. At Great Cotes, some small flocks in North-east 
Lincolnshire in October and November, more than have been 
seen for naany years. On Suffolk coast, mouth of Deben, Nov. 
1st, seven. 

Siskin, Carduelis spinus. — At Heligoland, Sept. 16th, a.m., 
"flights in my garden of (say) fifty ; p.m., flights of hundreds " ; 
17th, "hundreds of thousands" — "flights like clouds"; 25th, 
many ; Oct. 7th, great many ; 27th, many still passing ; Nov. 
4th, W., still some flights. On English coast of Spurn, Oct. 
27th, small flock seen. At Northrepps, Sept. 16th, seen by Mr. 
J. H. Gurney. Have also been reported as more plentiful than 
usual in other parts of country. 

Lesser Kedpole, Linota rufescens. — In Lincolnshire there 
were very considerable numbers in our east coast marshes early 
in October ; in one instance, on the 7th, I saw a flock of two 
hundred in a stubble-field near the coast. At Spurn, Oct. 28th, 
Mr. Wm. Eagle Clarke saw a flock near Kilnsea. 

Linnet, Linota cannahina. — At Heligoland, Oct. 4th, great 
many, first comers ; 6th, some ; 28th, with Twites, great many. 
On the English coast, Whitby l.v., Sept. 27th, with many others. 
At Corton l.v., Oct. 5th, one E. to W. At Swin Middle l.v., 
Sept. 18th, sunrise to 10 a.m., with Chaffinches to W. ; and on 
previous day, Sept. 17th, all day to N.N.W. with Swallows. At 
Gull L.V., Sept. 26th to Oct. 25th, on six days with other birds to 
W. and S.W. ; continuous all day on Oct. 24th and 25th. At 
South-sand Head l.v., Oct. 18th and 21st, Linnets with others 
all day; 26th, all day with others to W. and N.W. Immense 
numbers appear to have crossed from Oct. 1st to 26th at the 
stations off the Essex and Kent coasts; none, or very few only, 
at stations north of this. 

Twite, Linota Jiavirostris. — Is not recorded on the English 
coast. At Heligoland, Oct. 16th, many passed, first comers ; 
and on 17th, great many ; 20th, great many; and on 25th, 26th, 
and 27th, lesser flights ; 28th, many with Linnets. 

Bullfinch, Pyrrhula eurojJcea. — At Heligoland, Oct. 7th, one, 



48 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

young ; 8th, one, young, in garden ; lOtli, some ; lltli, a few ; 
19th, some ; 25th, a few ; and through November and December 
in small parties of ten to twelve; have not been seen on the 
island for ever so many years. At Spurn, some were seen last 
week in November ; and during the last fortnight in the same 
month, many in North-east Lincolnshire. Mr. J. H. Gurney, 
writing from Eeigate, Jan. 4th, 1881, says, " There are more 
Bullfinches in this part of Surrey than I think I ever saw." 
Extraordinary numbers were seen in Mayo and Sligo, Ireland, in 
the last autumn and w^inter (See * Zoologist,' 1881, p. 133). 

Crossbill, Loxia curvirostra. — At Heligoland, Oct. 7th, one 
young bird. 

Starling, Sturnus vulgaris. — Next to the Lark, this species 
undoubtedly takes the second rank numerically amongst the 
migrants. The young birds crossed Heligoland in large numbers 
from June 15th to July 5th. The old birds beginning to move 
about Sept. 11th, and from that time to Oct. 27th, enormous 
numbers passed. On the English coast they are recorded at 
twenty-five stations, from the Longstone to the Hanois l.h., 
Guernsey. At Longstone l.h., Nov. 19th, large flocks to W. 
At Fame Inner l.h., Sept. 30th, to Nov. 13th (Oct. 15th, rush), 
when they passed all day westward. At Coquet l.h., Oct. 1st 
and 11th. At Teesmouth 5 Buoy l.v., Nov. 27th, large flocks 
from S.E. to N.W. At Whitby l.h., July 23rd, one hundred 
young birds to S. At Flamborough l.h., great numbers in 
November. At Spurn l.h., Oct. 14th to Nov. 27th, Oct. 23rd and 
24th, and Nov. 27th to 30th, all day from N. to S. At Spurn l.v., 
Oct. 17th, thirty came on board; 27th, Starlings and Larks; two 
dozen caught going S. At Inner Dow^sing l.v., Jan. 4th, one 
•dead on deck at sunrise. At Hunstanton" l.h., Oct. 8th, 4 a.m., 
o. m., rain, E., hundreds with Larks round light, fifteen killed. 
At Cromer l.h., Jan. 3rd, 1881, 3 a.m., one killed. At Leman 
and Ower l.v., Sept. 28th and 29th, and Oct. 19th, during night; 
At Hasboro' l.h., Sept. 13th and 14th, 11 p.m. to midnight, with 
Larks, twenty stunned, young. birds ; 27th, midnight, four killed, 
young ; Dec. 27th, midnight, with Larks and Blackbirds. At 
Newarp l.v., Oct. 13th to 25th, on three days to W. At Cdrton 
L.V., Sept. 27th, Oct. 4th, and Nov. 17th, E. to W. At Gallope) 
L.V., Oct. 13th to Nov. 11th, nearly every day large flocks goinf 
N.W., day and night, sometimes alone, at others with Larks anc 



EAST COAST OF ENGLAND. 49 

small birds. At Kentish Knock l.v., Oct. 8th, 10th, and 13th, 
to W.S.W., with Larks and many other birds. At Shipwash l.v., 
Sept. 21st to Nov. 23rd, on several days, sometimes with Larks 
N. and N.W. At Swin Middle l.v., Aug. 28th, flocks to W. with 
other birds; and Oct. 30th, to W. with Larks. At South-sand 
Head l.v., Oct. 10th, continuous with others ; also on 17th, 18th, 
22nd, and 26th, to W. At East Goodwin l.v., Sept. 24th and 
25th, hazy, flocks about ship with Sparrows on 25th ; Oct. 16th, 
hundreds E. to W. At Casquets l.h., Oct. 13th to 17th, 
midnight, rain. Starlings amongst other birds to N.W. At 
Hanois l.h., Guernsey, Aug. 14th, night, with many others ; 
Dec. 2nd, midnight, o. m., half a dozen struck. The young 
migrate first ; the old in October and November. Have 
crossed in the greatest number at the more southern stations, 
travelling all hours of the day and night in westerly and north- 
westerly directions ; constantly associated with Larks in their 
migrations. The majority crossed from Oct. 19th to 26th. Again 
there was a "second rush" near the end of November, and a 
third the second week in January, before the outbreak of severe 
weather. 

EosE-coLOUKED Starling, Pcistov Toseus. — At Heligoland, 
Sept. 17th, one, a young bird, occurred. 

Grey Crow, Corviis comix. — At Heligoland, Sept. 24th, 
commencing with flocks of thirty to forty, and passing at 
intervals to end of October, sometimes in immense numbers ; 
Oct. 7th, towards evening an enormous flight, during night fifty 
caught by lanterns ; and after this passing in smaller numbers 
to Nov. 2nd. On the English coast they were noticed at seven- 
teen stations, extending from the Fame Islands to the mouth of 
the Thames. At Fame Inner l.h., Oct. 21st to Nov. 20th, to W. 
At Teesmouth 5 Buoy l.v., Sept. 10th, two E. to W. ; Oct. 12th, 
great many E.S.E. to W.N.W. At Teesmouth, Sept. 25th, two 
seen ; Oct. 16th and 20th, many. At Whitby l.h., Oct. 24th and 
26th, with Blackbirds at daylight. At Flamborough l.h., Oct. 
8th, enormous numbers seen. At Spurn, Oct. 12th to Nov. 9th, 
great many. At Great Cotes, Oct. 9th, 5.30 p.m., gale from N.E., 
large flock came in, travelling from E. to W., very high. At 
Lynn Well, l.v., Oct. 10th to 14th, continuous every day from S. 
to N.W.; again 22nd and 23rd, all day S.E. to N.W. At 
Hunstanton l.h., Oct. 10th, 11th, and 12th, many E. to W., 

H 



50 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

wind E.N.E. At Nortlirepps, Oct. 13th, many to N.W. At 
Leman and Ower l.v., Oct. 21st, 5 p.m., to N.W. At Cockle l.v., 
Oct. 11th, contmuous to W.N.W., wmd E.N.E. At Gorton l.v., 
Oct. 10th, very high, E. to W., wind E.N.E.; 11th, continuous 
9 a.m. to noon. At mouth of Deben, Oct. 29th to Nov. 1st, in 
numbers. At Galloper l.v., Oct. 24th to Nov. 9th, many flocks. 
At Shipwash l.v., Oct. 12th, 30th, and Nov. 3rd, flocks N.W. and 
N.N.W. At Swin Middle l.v., Oct. 22nd, noon to 3 p.m., with 
Rooks. At South-sand Head l.v., Sept. 16th, ten "Crows" to 
N.W. — may have been Corvus corone ; Nov. 4th, two hundred 
Crows to N.W. The majority of the Hooded Crows arrived from 
Oct. 8th to 23rd, the greatest number on any given day probably 
on the 11th. The main body passed on to the east coast between 
Flamborough and Yarmouth, with northerly and easterly winds, 
and travelling from E. to W., N.E. to S.W., and S.E. and S. 
to N.W. 

Rook, Corvus fnigilegus. — Enormous as have been the number 
of Crows crossing the North Sea the Rook has probably quite 
equalled them. None were noticed at Heligoland, or indeed at 
any station north of the Humber ; but from Spurn to the South- 
sand Head they are recorded at sixteen stations, from Oct. 10th 
to Nov. 12th, the greatest number crossing undoubtedly on Oct. 
21st, and the majority during the autumn at the more southern 
stations. Comparing the immigration of the Grey Crow with the 
Rook we find that the former crossed more to the north than the 
latter did. Thus Grey Crows are recorded from the Fames to 
the mouth of the Thames : the majority into Holderness, Lincoln- 
shire and Norfolk ; the Rooks from Spurn to the South Foreland, 
the majority into the southern counties. Each, however, came 
from, and travelled to, the same points of- the compass — E. to 
W., or N.E. to S.W., or S.E. and S. to S.W. 

Daw, Corvus monedala. — At Great Cotes, Oct. 19th, several, 
with Rooks, coming in from the sea. At Nortlirepps, Oct. 14th, 
going N.W. At Galloper l.v., Oct. 17th, 7.45 a.m.. Rooks and 
Daws, three to four hundred. 

Jay, Garrulus glandariiis. — Nil Return. There was, however, 
a considerable influx into North-east Lincolnshire on or about 
the last week in October. 

Pie, Pica rustica. — At Northrei:)ps, Oct. 17th, Mr. J. H. 
Gurney observed two high up, going E. 



EAST COAST OF ENGLAND. 51 

Swallow, Hirundo rustica. — At Heligoland, Sept. 16th, 
passing S. At Fame Inner l.h., Oct. 1st, several all day. At 
Coquet L.H., July 10th, numbers; Sept. 20th, 6 p.m., four. At 
Teesmouth 5 Buoy l.v., July 27th, 6 to 7.30 p.m., wind S.W., 
moderate, six large flocks, fifty to sixty each, north to south ; 
Sept. 15th, 4 p.m., large flocks to S. At Whitby l.h., Sept. 22nd, 
4 p.m., last seen going S. At Flamborough l.h., Sept. 17th, 
midday, great many. At Spurn l.h., Sept. 6th, all day young 
Swallows passing along Spurn promontory towards S., each flock 
followed by Pipits. At Hunstanton l.v., Sept. 28th, large flock 
on lighthouse. At Leman and Ower l.v., July 29th, 6 a.m., 
numbers passed, some alighting on board, one struck and killed. 
At Hasboro' l.h., Sept. 1st, 2 a.m., fog, flock, several caught as 
they beat against lantern. At Winterton l.h., Sept. 3rd to 9th, 
round lantern every day. At Swin Middle l.v., Sept. 15th, all 
day to N.W. ; 17th, with Linnets all day to N.N.W. ; 18th, 
sunrise to 9 a.m., two hundred to W. At North Foreland l.h., 
July 28th, 10 a.m. to 3 p.m., passing ; 29th, six passed; Swallows 
also in numbers from five to forty were seen flying round lantern 
during the last week in September. At South-sand Head l.v., 
Sept. 23rd, twelve to W, At Casquets l.h., Oct. 7th, from 
11 p.m. to 3 a.m., S.S.E., rain. Swallows, Landrails, Water 
Bails, Woodcocks, King Ouzels, and Common Thrushes were seen 
round light ; amongst the birds striking the glass were one hundred 
Swallows. At Hanois l.h., Guernsey, Sept. 30th, a flight passed 
south. Swallows were noticed migrating at fifteen stations on 
the east coast and in the Channel from July 10th, at Coquet 
Island, to Oct. 7th, at the Casquets, the greater part in 
September. Migrate both by day and night, and in very 
considerable flocks ; general direction north to south, but at Swin 
Middle l.v., S.E. to N.W. Swallows remained very late in the 
autumn of the past year in some localities. In North-east 
Lincolnshire, Nov. 9th, a pair seen. In Essex, Nov. 4th. In 
* The Zoologist' for 1881, p. 62, the editor records the late stay 
of the Swallow at eight stations, all southern ones except Dublin, 
from Nov. 22nd to Dec. 11th. It is rather remarkable that, in 
North-east Germany, Swallows are recorded in the German 
newspapers as taking their departure nearly a month before the 
average time. 

Martin, Chelidon urhica. — At Heligoland, Sept. 1st, with 



52 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

Swifts passing on overhead, N.\Y., clear, little wind, warm. At 
Outer Dowsing l.v., Sept. 21st, sunset, two flying round lantern. 
At mouth of Deben, Nov. 1st, many Martins and Sand Martins 
seen. At South-sand Head l.v., Sept. 1st, twelve to S. One 
was seen at Henley-on Thames on Dec. 18tli (ZooL, 1881, p. 62). 

Swift, Ci/pscUis apus. — At Heligoland, June 1st, some 
passing ; Sept. 1st, passing on overhead ; 16th, great many. 
At Whitby l.h., Sept. 16th, 4 p.m., flock to S. At Spurn l.h., Aug. 
27th, 6.30 a.m., great number to S. ; Sept. 6th, again migrating ; 
on June 7th, at 7 p.m., fifty were seen perched on gallery of 
lighthouse. At Cockle l.v., July 11th, two to N.W. Very few 
have been observed in comparison with the enormous flight 
which passed up the coast in the autumn of 1879. 

Nightjar, Capriimdgus europceus. — At Hasborough l.v., Sept. 
24th, 10 p.m., one killed against lantern. Occurs every year at 
Spm*n in the autumn as a migrant. 

Cuckoo, Cuculus canonis. — At Heligoland, June 3rd, one old 
bird. At Whitby l.h., July 4th, one caught, a young bird. At 
Spurn, Sept. 7th, one seen, young. At Cromer l.h., July 28th, 
midnight, stunned. 

Wryneck, Jynx torquilla. — At Heligoland, Aug. 13th, one 
young bird. 

Hoopoe, Upupa epops.—OnQ recorded in the 'Field' of Nov. 
6th as shot at Eedcar, middle of September. At Bridlington, 
Sept. 15th, one. At Holt, Norfolk, Sept. 22nd, one, a male, in a 
turnip-field. At Woodham Mortimer, Essex, one shot Sept. 20th. 
At Crofton, near Wakefield, Oct. 29th, one shot and another seen. 

Bee-eater, Merops apiaster. — At Tetney Haven, seven miles 
S. of Grimsby, one on Aug. 16th (ZooL, 1880, p. 511). 

Great Spotted Woodpecker, Picus major. — At Spurn, Oct. 
27th, one shot, a few red feathers on the crown of the head, and 
in an advanced state of moult. At Great Cotes, Dec. 8th, one. 

King Dove or Wood Pigeon, Columha palumhus. — At 
Heligoland, Sept. 25th, twenty to thirty. At Tongue l.v., Dec. 
30th, 2.30 p.m., nine ''Pigeons" going N. At Casquets l.h., 
Oct. 13th to 17th, midnight, "Wood Pigeons from French to 
English coast going N.W. 

Turtle Dove, Turtur communis. — At Flamborough, first week 
in October, one. At Great Cotes, Oct. 8{h, N.E. gale and rain, one 
seen. At Casquets, Sept. 7th, 10 i^.m. to 3 a.m., fifteen striking. 



EAST COAST OF ENGLAND. 5B 

Golden Plovek, Charadrius pluvialis. — At Heligoland, July 
3rd, E., passing over day and night in great numbers; 4th, 
about twenty young birds ; 23rd and 24th, young birds ; Aug. 
10th, flights of hundreds, all young ; 12th and 13th, northerly, 
fine, many high overhead ; Sept. 3rd, great number of waders 
during night; 8th and 9th, great many; 16th, a.m., flights of 
dozens, p.m. flights of hundreds ; Oct. 28th, many thousands 
over sea. At Fame Inner l.h., Aug. 12th to 28th, flocks to and 
from land every day; Nov. 23rd and 24th, all day. At Coquet 
Island L.H., Nov. 21st and Dec. 10th, all day. At Teesmouth, 
Sept. 25th, twenty seen. At Spurn l.h., Sept. 5th, flocks 
"Plover" N. to S. during day. At Great Cotes, Dec. 9th, 
immense flights, old birds. At Dudgeon l.v.," Aug. 7th, 3 a.m. 
to midnight, in small parties, general direction W. ; 25th, 
some ; Oct. 28th, about one hundred to W. None at southern 
stations.* The young birds of the year migrate across Heligoland 
as early as the first week in July, and so on into August. The 
old birds later and in separate flocks. The migration of old birds 
as seen at Spurn going towards the north is exceptional, the rule 
on the east coast being a few old black-breasted birds in August 
and September, often with Lapwings, then flocks of young birds, 
and later in November the " great rush" of old birds. 

Grey Plover, Squatarola helvetica. — At Heligoland, June 15th, 
16th, and 17th, repeatedly ; not mentioned afterwards in report. 
At Spurn l.h., July 25th, three on the muds ; Aug. 29th, two. 
On Essex coast, Aug. 14th, Major Kussell saw a flock or two, all 
having black breasts. The young arrive in August and Sep- 
tember ; old birds later in October and November ; a few old 
birds having black or mottled breasts are often seen in July or 
early in August. Some birds of the previous year, or in their 
second summer, sometimes remain on the coast during the 
summer. 

Lapwing, Vanellns vulgaris. — At Heligoland, July 3rd, with 
many others high overhead, day and night ; 4th, in astounding 

'•' My friend Major Seddon, of Waltham,. informs me that, when at Spurn 
with his yacht, on the night of Aug. 22nd, he saw thousands of Golden 
Plover passing north along the sea-shore in detached flocks, flying in lines 
and arrow-heads ; he was near enough to see that the upper parts were 
speckled with the "golden drop," and the under parts mottled black and 
white, as if changing from the summer to the winter dress. 



54 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

numbers with Curlews. At Fame Inner l.h., Aug. 12th to 28th, 
with Golden Plovers to and from land daily. At Coquet Island 
L.H., Nov. 16th to Dec. 30th, on several days; "rush," Nov. 21st 
and Dec. lOtli. At Spurn l.h., Sept. 5th, flocks N. to S. during 
day. At Great Cotes, Oct. 20th, gale from N., flocks E. to W. 
At Outer Dowsing l.v., June 21st, two came on board ; left at 
9 a.m. for W. At Dudgeon l.v., Aug. 7th, 3 a.m. to midnight, 
''Plovers," small parties, general direction W. At Lynn Well 
L.V., Nov. 7th and 23rd, Dec. 20th and 29th, S.E. to N.W. At 
Hasboro' l.h., Nov. 15tli, Gulls and Plovers to S. ; Dec. 17th, 
''Plovers" to S. At Cockle l.v., July 10th, two Lapwings to 
N.W. At Galloper l.v., Oct. 28th, 9.20 a.m., thirty "Pewit" to 
N.W. At Swin Middle l.v., Sept. 20th, "six birds like Crows."* 
At Casquets l.h., Oct. 7th, 12 p.m., flock to N.W. Appear to 
have crossed at irregular times, and at some stations in consider- 
able numbers ; from July 3rd, at Heligoland, to the end of 
December, at Lynn Well and Coquet Island. 

Dotterel, Eudromias morinellus. — At Heligoland, July 24th, 
one shot. At Teesmouth, a dozen seen about middle of Sep- 
tember. Very rarely observed at British stations during the 
autumn migration. 

Ringed Plover, JEgialitis hiaticula, — At Heligoland, July 1st, 
great many with Redshanks the whole day passing on high 
overhead ; 3rd, same, day and night ; 5th, same. At Swin 
Middle l.v., very large flocks of "Oxbirds"t passed, going N.W., 
in October, November, December, and January. 

Oystercatcher, Hcematojms ostralegus. — At Coquet l.h., Aug. 
16tli, N.E., great numbers all day. At Teesmouth 5 Buoy l.v., 
Aug. 16th, flock of "Mussel-crackers." At Hunstanton l.h., 
from Aug. 2nd for several weeks, large flocks of Oystercatchers 
and Curlews passing S.W. at ebb, returning E. at flood. 

Dusky Redshank, Totanus fascus. — At Heligoland,. June 15th, 
16th, and 17th, repeatedly. Redshank, T. calidris, July 1st, 
great many whole day passing high overhead, and on 3rd, day 
and night, with many others ; 5th, also many ; Aug. 10th, one 
Dusky Redshank, a young bird; shot; SejDt. 3rd, night, great 
many Totaiii and Tringce ; Sept. 8th, great many also. 

'^ To which my correspondent quaintly adds in a note, *' the six birds like 
Crows which passed on the 20th, cried *pee-weet' as they jmssed." 
f Dunlin ? 



EAST COAST OF ENGLAND. 55 

Knot, Tringa canutus. — At Teesmouth 5 Buoy l.v., Sept. 10th, 
first seen. At Teesmouth, July 30th, ten or twelve old birds. 
At Spurn, July 24th, one, an old male, in somewhat faded 
plumage, killed against telegraph-wire. At Great Cotes, Aug. 
16th, large flocks of young birds in the Humber ; November, first 
week, old birds. At Lynn Well l.v., Jan. 1st, 2nd, and 3rd (1881), 
9 p.m. to midnight. Knots with Larks, fifteen killed. 

Curlew Sandpiper, Tringa siibarquata. — At Heligoland, July 
4th, some few. 

Purple Sandpiper, Tringa striata. — Several in October and 
November at Spurn, also on Lincolnshire and Norfolk coasts. 

Temminck's Stint, Tringa Tenunincki. — Sept. 29th, seen on 
North Norfolk coast. 

Sanderling, Calidris arenaria At Spurn, Aug. 16th, in 

small flocks, young birds. In September and October, first 
fortnight very numerous, afterwards less. 

Grey Phalarope, Phalaropns fidicarius, — On Lincolnshire 
coast, Oct. 21st, one, a female. At Harwich river, Nov. 17th, 
one seen. 

Woodcock, Scolopax riisticida. — At Heligoland, Sept. 25th, 
six to eight shot ; 29th, some ; Oct. 15th, six to eight ; 16th, 
afternoon, about twenty shot; 21st, N.E. and N.N.E., stormy, 
some with Blackbirds ; 22nd, S.W., squally, very great many 
flying about, seventy to eighty shot ; Nov. 9th, S.W., one dozen 
shot during day ; 19th, still some. At Fame Inner l.h., Oct. 
20th to 29th, N. or E., on six days, one or two ; Dec. 27th, one. 
At Coquet Island l.h., Oct. 30th, 7 a.m., one; Nov. 10th, 3 a.m., 
N.W., one killed; 16th, 9 a.m., two. At Teesmouth 5 Buoy l.v., 
Oct. 13th, 22nd, and 26th, 9 to 11 a.m.. one or two each day 
going E. to W. At Teesmouth, Oct. 5th, 6th, 19th, and 20th, 
one each day. At Flamborough l.h., Sept. 2nd, one seen near 
lighthouse; Oct. 19th, great flight, twenty shot, "small and very 
dark-coloured birds." At Spurn l.h., Oct. 5th, two ; 19th to 
22nd, upwards of one hundred shot near Spurn ; 27th, five seen. 
On Lincolnshire coast, Oct. 19th, near Skegness, forty-three shot, 
seventy altogether during week. At Outer Dowsing l.v., Nov., 
23rd, N.W\, 2 p.m., three from E. to W. ; Dec. 6th, 2 p.m., two, 
same direction. At Inner Dowsing l.v., Oct. 29th, one dead on 
deck at sunrise. At Lynn Well l.v., Oct. 28th, one with a 
Lapwing killed at midnight. Near Cromer, Oct. 19th, great 



56 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

flight, twenty shot in neighbourhood. At Gorton l.v., Nov. 9th, 
noon, five to N. very low. On Essex coast, many seen between 
Oct. 29th and Nov. 1st ; three came on board a smack off mouth 
of Deben. At Casquets l.h., Oct. 7th, 11 p.m. to 3 a.m., with 
other birds round kintern. Woodcocks began moving early in 
September; the "great llight" on to the east coast from Flam- 
borough to Yarmouth was on the night of Oct. 18th or early 
morning of 19th, north-east gale, with snow in the north, and 
was followed by other flights on the next two or three days. Over 
Heligoland the great flight was on the afternoon of Oct. 22nd, 
with wind S.W., and squally. They were observed at fourteen 
stations, from the Fame Islands to the Casquets ; are reported as 
scarce north of Flamborough and south of Essex, the main stream 
evidently coming into Holderness, Lincolnshire, and Norfolk. 

Great Snipe, Gallinago major. — At Fame Inner l.h., Nov. 
3rd, one on island. 

GoMMON Snipe, Gallinago ccslestis. — At Fame Inner l.h., Nov. 
27th to Dec. 27th, many. At Great Gotes, "great flight" from 
Oct. 2oth to end of month, only remaining a day or two. On 
Essex coast, Oct. 29th to Nov. 1st, large numbers, but only 
remainmg a few hours. 

Jack Snipe, Gallinago gallinula. — At Fame Inner l.h., Nov. 
9th, two to N.W. ; 18th, two, same. At Great Gotes, Nov. 2nd, 
first seen. On Norfolk coast, Sept. 30th, one seen ; are very 
scarce on the. east coast this winter. 

Bar-tailed Godwit, Limosa hq^jyonica. — At Teesmouth 5 Buoy 
L.V., Sept. 17th, flock of twenty. At Teesmouth, Aug. 16th and 
23rd, Sept. 1st and 5th, flocks each day. On Essex coast, Aug. 
14th, a few of the immature second year birds — probably had 
remained on the coast all through the summer. 

GuRLEW, Nuvienius arquata. — At Heligoland, July 4th, 
"astounding numbers early in the morning"; July 5th, some; 
Aug. 11th, 12th, and 18th, many passing overhead. At Fame 
Inner l.h., September, several. At Goquet l.h., July 30th, two 
seen; 31st, one score, northwards. At Teesmouth 5 Buoy l.v., 
Sept. 15th, great many. At Whitby l.h., Aug. 2nd, 11 a.m., 
flocks going south, " supposed to be young birds." At Flam- 
borough, great numbers last week in August. At Spurn l.h., 
Sept. 8th, four round lantern going N. to S. ; 17th, 3 a.m., with 
Plover, two Gurlews killed. At Hunstanton l.h., large flocks 



JEAST COAST OF ENGLAND. 57 

on coast from Aug. 2nd; Oct. 6th, o.m., rain, 7.80 p.m., one 
struck and caught. At Cromer l.h., Aug. 21st, 11.30 p.m., two 
struck, stunned. At Hasborough l.h., Oct. 8th, noon to 3 p.m., 
E., flights going S. At Winterton l.h., June 17th, 11 p.m., one 
seen going to W., passed close to lantern ; Sept. 12th, 10 a.m., 
a dozen to W. At Kentish Knock l.v., Aug. 6tli, one very high 
to W. At Swin Middle l.v., Aug. 26th to Sept. 17th, on five days 
at about 3 p.m., going N.W. ; Jan. 2nd and 3rd, fog, on both 
nights, many with other birds round lantern; killed three 
Curlews, one Duck, thirty-two Larks, two Ox-birds ; total, 
thirty-eight. At North Foreland l.h., July 27th, four to N.W. ; 
Sept. 9th, five to N.N.W. ; Dec. 4th, thirty to forty about. At 
North-sand Head l.v., Aug. 1st, noon, "shoals" E. to W. At 
South-sand Head l.v., Sept. 3rd, twenty to W. ; 27th, twenty or 
thirty to W. At East Goodwin l.v., Sept. 6th, eight N. to S. 
The main body migrates in August and early in September ; 
general direction E. to W., or up the coast from N. to S. 

Whimbrel, Numenius phceopus. — At Teesmouth, July 4th, 
several flocks ; 21st, eight or nine flocks. At Spurn l.h., July 
25th, several. At Great Cotes, passing in July, August, and 
September, very high to south. 

Heron, Ardea cinerea. — At Coquet l.h., July 28th, 5 p.m., 
one : Aug. 13th, 3 a.m., two ; Sept. 4th, 6 a.m., two ; Dec. 26th, 
9 a.m., one. At Teesmouth, Redcar, Sept. 21st, five; 24th, one; 
Oct. 23rd, 4 p.m., N.E., mod. gale, two. At Flamborough l.h., 
June 12th, two. Only at the more northern stations. That 
some arrive on the east coast in the autumn there can be no 
doubt ; a few years since one was brought in alive to Grimsby, 
taken at sea on board one of the Hamburg boats. 

Water-Rail and Land-Rail, Ballus aquaticus and Crex 
prate7isis. — At Casquets l.h., Oct. 2nd, 11 p.m. to 2 a.m., some 
killed; Oct. 7th, 11 p.m. to 3 a.m., several with Water Rails, 
some killed. 

Whooper, Cygnus musicus. — At Teesmouth 5 Buoy l.v., Oct. 
29th, 10.30 a.m., wind strong from N.N.E., six, all white. At 
Flamborough, during the severe weather early in January, 1881, 
several flocks came into Bridlington Bay, numbering from six to 
twenty in a flock. At Spm-n, Dec. 31st, two W^hoopers, one shof . 
Several in the Humber during the first half of January. At 
Inner Dowsing l.v., Jan. 21st, 1 p.m., five N.E. to S.W. At 

I 



58 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

Gorton l.v., Jan. lOtb, 1881, a flock of about thirty very high to 
N.W. The severe weather commencing Dec. 30th brought con- 
siderable numbers of Wild Swans on to our east coast. 

Wild Geese, Anser. — Under this general term numbers of 
Geese are recorded at east coast stations. At Heligoland, Sept. 
6th, great many overhead; Oct. 19th, great flights. Anser 
hrachyrhynchus, Oct. 15th, one young bird shot. At Teesmouth 
5 Buoy L.V., Sept. loth, flock of fifteen " Grey Geese" N. to S. ; 
25th, six '' Grey Geese" to S. At Teesmouth, Oct. 16th, 7 a.m., 
flock; 19th, 7 a.m., same. At Flamborough l.h., several flocks 
**Grey Geese" early in October. At Outer Dowsing l.v., Dec. 
2nd, 11 a.m., five Wild Geese N.N.E. to S.W. At Lynn Well 
L.V., July 3i-d, eight Grey Geese E. to W. ; Oct. 3rd, twenty to 
south. At Winterton l.h., June 19th, 7 p.m., fifty flying very 
low. At Gull L.V., Sept. 21st, forty to S. ; Oct. 19th, 10 a.m. to 
3 p.m., three flocks to S. ; 30th, flock of forty to W. At East 
Goodwin l.v., Nov. 22nd and 23rd, two small flocks E. to W. and 
N. to S. At Casquets l.h., Sept. 7th, 2 p.m.. Geese going W. 
Migration south in September and October, the main body in the 
latter month. At Winterton a flock was seen on June 19th, and 
a small flock at the Lynn Well l.v., July 3rd, which looks very 
much as if some remained on the English coast throughout the 
summer, as is the case with the Scoter and many of the Limicolce, 
as Grey Plover, Godwit, Knot, and Whimbrel. 

Egyptian Goose, Anser cegpjytiacus. — At Fame l.h., Nov. 2nd, 
N.N.E. , squally, 10 a.m., two seen flying northward. My 
informant also says that he shot a i3air on the island in 
October, 1876. 

Snow Goose, Chen hyperhoreus. — At Heligoland, Dec. 25th, 
** one on clifl', not shot, no doubt about it." • 

Brent Goose, Bernicla brenta. — At Teesmouth 5 Buoy l.v., 
Sept. 25th, 11 a.m., first seen; Nov. 21st, flock of sixteen to W. 
At Spurn, great many in Humber, inside Spurn, in December and 
January ; amongst these there was an unusual number of the 
white-bellied variety. On Essex coast, Oct. 6th, first heard of; 
20th, one hundred or more seen on Buxby Sand. 

Anas. — Under the general head of "Wild Duck," immense 
numbers of Ducks have been observed. at various of the east coast 
stations. At Fame Inner l.h., Nov. 1st, "Mallard" flock to N. 
At Coquet l.h., Aug. 20th, large flocks all day to S. ; Oct. 6th, 



EAST COAST OF ENGLAND. 59 

one Eider ; 22ncl, N. ; Dec. 23rd, N. ; 31st, N.W., large flocks all 
day from N. to S. At Teesmouth 5 Buoy l.v., Aug. 16th, six 
Teal; 26th, large flock from N.E. ; Sept. 10th, twenty-six 
Sheldrakes, same day large flock of Widgeon ; Oct. 12th to 22nd, 
immense number of Widgeon ; Dec. 16th, large flock of Teal to 
S.E. At Teesmouth, Oct. 28th, Ducks in endless flocks morn 
and noon, all kinds, N.E. hurricane, hail, snow, rain. At 
Flamborough, Jan. 3rd to 7th, both Geese and Ducks to south in 
great numbers. At Spurn, Nov. 4th, great number of various 
sorts in Humber ; and during the, last half of December and in 
January, enormous flocks of various sorts driven into the river 
by stress of weather. At Outer Dowsing l.v., July 20th, 28th, 
and Ang. 10th, about 7 p.m., forty or fifty each day S.E. to 
N.N.W. At Lynn Well l.v., Sept. 25th, great quantities S.E. to 
N.W. At Winterton l.h., Aug. 23rd, twenty-one Sheldrakes 
to E. On Essex coast, Aug. 7th, Widgeon, six young birds 
seen; 28th, many, wind N.N.W. veering to N.N.E. At Galloper 
L.V., Nov. 9th, twenty " Smee Ducks " ; Widgeon during night, 
At Kentish Knock l.v., Sept. 29th, calm, "Wild Ducks," flock at 
midnight N.E. to S.W. At Swin Middle l.v., Aug. 31st to Sept. 
20th, on fourteen days " Wild Ducks" all going N.W. or N.N.W. ; 
Sept. 5th, "great rush." At North Foreland, Sept. 25th, twenty 
to thirty to N. along shore ; Oct. 6th, thirty or forty to S.W. At 
Goodwin l.v., Sept. 27th to Oct. 29th, "Wild Ducks" going E. 
to W. or N.N.W. ; Nov. 4th to 29th, from N.W. to S.E. Migration 
extending from about the middle of July to the end of October. 
The greater part arriving in September and October, not only 
from the north and north-east, but also from S.E. and S.S.E. on 
to the English coast. 

Black Scoter, (Edemia nigra. — The migration of this species 
appears greatly to have exceeded that of any other Duck. They 
have been seen in large numbers during the autumn at various 
stations on the coast and at sea, passing as a rule towards the 
south. At Teesmouth, Oct. 2nd, two Black Scoters seen. At 
Lynn Well l.v., Oct. 17th and 24th, large flocks of Scoters all 
day from S. to N.W\ and S.E. to W. The direction in this case 
caused by birds passing over from North-west Norfolk to Lincoln- 
shire coast. Jan. 1st, one killed against lantern. At Newarp 
L.V., Sept. 22nd to Oct. 15th, several days, flocks going to S.W. 
At Cockle L.V., Sept. 27th, 6 to 10 a.m., in large flocks to N.W, 



60 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

At Gorton l.v., Nov. 16th, noon, hundreds N. to S. ; Dec. 12th to 
28th, numerous flocks from N.N.E. to W.S.W. and S.E. to N.W. 
At Tongue l.v., Dec. 29th, 9 a.m. to noon, several flocks to W. 
At Gull L.V., July 22nd and 23rd, flocks to S.E. ; Aug. 20th to 
Dec. 3rd, on several days to W.S.W. and S. At South-sand 
Head l.v., July 21st, two flocks, thii'ty and fifty to S., and from 
this to Oct. 16th, frequent flocks going as a rule S. At East 
Goodwin l.v., July 5th, 6th, 9th, and 10th, first two days, small 
flocks E. to W. ; on the 9th, a thousand or more going N. to S. 

CoLYMBiDiE. — At Fame Inner l.h., Sept. 10th, two. Great 
Northern Diver, Coli/mhus glacialis, Nov. 2nd, six "speckled" 
about island. At Teesmouth, several Eed-throated Divers, 
Colymhus sejytentriojialis, early morning. Mr. J. H. GmTiey 
informs me that when Mr. F. D. Power was off Cley, on 
the Norfolk coast, this autumn, on Oct. 1st, he saw a remarkable 
flight of Eed-throated Divers along coast eastward ; they flew 
forty to fifty yards high, but rarely came near the boat ; one 
shot had a perfect red throat. 

PoDiciPiTiD^. — At Hunstanton l.h., Sept. 2nd, 9 p.m., o.m., 
Little Grebe, Podiceps fluriatilis, struck and caught. At Hasboro' 
L.H., Dec. 3rd, 2 a.m., fog, Little Grebe killed, being the second 
in eighteen months. Sclavonian Grebe, Podiceps auritiis, one, a 
female, was shot near Easington, Spurn, on Jan. 11th, 1881, and 
Great Crested Grebe, P. cristatuSy in Whitby Harbour on the 16th 
of the same month. 

Alcid^. — At Heligoland, Nov. 26th, Common Guillemots in 
great numbers on the cliff, their breeding quarters ; Dec. 10th, 
early morning, cliffs covered ; 13th, thousands, at least half 
black-bearded. 

Cormorant, Phalacrocorax carho. — At Hunstanton l.h., Aug. 
24th, eight passing E. 

Gannet, Snla bassana. — At Spurn l.v., Oct. 1st to 16th, many 
to S. At Outer Dowsing l.v., Oct. 27th, 9 a.m., eight to S. At 
Cockle L.V., Oct. 16th, several ; 25th, fifteen to W. ; 27th, great 
numbers. At Corton l.v., Oct. 16th, many to S. At Casquets, 
Aug. 22nd, and on Dec. 8th, matiy to N.N.W. Was seen off the 
Casquets as early as Aug. 22nd. The main migration appears to 
have taken place in October, from N. to S. along the east coast. 

Sterninze. — At Heligoland, July, Ca'spian Tern, Sterna Caspia, 
frequently seen. At Fame Inner l.h., Aug. 28th, both the 



EAST COAST OF ENGLAND. 61 

Sandwich and Ai-ctic Terns left the islands. At the Longstone 
L.H., on the extreme outer reef of the Fames, the Sandwich Tern 
was seen last on Sept. 8th, and the Arctic Sept. 14th. At 
Coquet Island l.h., Aug. 14th, N.N.E., great number of Terns all 
day about island. At Teesmouth 5 Buoy l.v., Aug. 16th, great 
numbers this day ; 29th, same. 

Lakin^. — At Heligoland, the Siberian Herring Gull, Larus 
qffinis, was seen off the rock on June 5th, N.W., strong. Little 
Gull, Larus mmutus, Sept. 5th, enormous numbers on the water. 
Ivory Gull, Larus ehurnea, Nov. 4th, westerly, seen on water. 
At Fame Inner l.h., Sept. 10th, the Gulls left islands. At 
Whitby L.H., Sept. 2nd, Gulls had all left, both young and old. 
At Filey, Ivory Gull, Larus ehurnea, a fully mature example, a 
male, was shot in September ; a young bird in the sj^otted 
plumage was also obtained in the same month. At Flamborough, 
Sept. 5th to 6th, Lesser Black-backed Gulls to south all day; 
wind S.W. by W. ; equal proportion of young and old. At Spurn 
L.V., July 29th and 30th, ''Smelt Gulls" aU day; Sept. 28th, 
large numbers of Gulls continuous to south. At Lynn Well l.v., 
Aug. 21st, 22nd, and 23rd, great qauntities all day from S.E. At 
Yarmouth, Mr. J. H. Gurney, writing Jan. 26th, 1881, says, 
"A correspondent at Yarmouth had recently twenty-seven 
Glaucous Gulls in the flesh, seven of which were mature." At 
Hasboro' l.h., Dec. 18th, 8 p.m., "Little Gull" struck and broke 
its neck. At Cockle l.v., Oct. 16th, Gulls during day; 27th, 
same. At Shipwash l.v., Nov. 29th, 10 a.m., large numbers to 
W. At South-sand Head l.v., July 29th, an unusual number seen. 

Stercorakiin^. — At Teesmouth 5 Buoy l.v., Aug. 29th, two 
Skuas passed. At Eedcar, Sept. 16th, twenty Eichardson's Skuas 
passed; Oct. 28th, Mr. T. H. Nelson, writing in the 'Field' 
newspaper for Nov. 6th, 1880, states that, during the night of 
the storm on Oct. 28th, he saw considerable numbers of the 
Pomatorhine Skua, amounting to several hundreds, flying close 
to the esplanade at Eedcar, and struggling to make headway 
against the gale ; they consisted almost entirely of mature birds 
of the white-breasted variety, only three or four being dark birds, 
but whether immatm-e or adult he could not ascertain. At 
Spurn L.V., Aug. 1st to Sept. 24th, a few Skuas passed going S. ; 
Oct. 1st to 16th, many passed same direction. At South-sand 
Head l.v., July 29th, an unusual number of Skuas seen. 



62 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

Procellariid^. — At Coquet l.h., July 22nd, 11 p.m., misty, 
one Petrel caught against glass of lantern, examined and set at 
liberty. At Redcar, Oct. 28th, two Stormy and one Fulmar 
Petrels picked up during great gale. At Flamborough, first week 
in October, Stormy Petrel. At Spui'n, Oct. 28th, Stormy Petrels 
after great gale. At Galloper l.v., Nov. 6th, 2 to 4 p.m., twelve 
Stormy Petrels about ship. At Gull l.v., Oct. 9th, 2 a.m., N., 
several struck glass, none killed. 

Independent of these very numerous notes on known species, 
the schedules contain many notices of birds the species of which 
were either not known or not recognised. At the Hasborough 
L.H., Oct. 26th, 10 p.m., E., o.m., a great many various small 
birds ; eight killed were Larks and Thrushes. At Swin Middle 
L.V., Sept. 9th and 12th, flocks of small birds passed all night to 
N.W. At Hanois l.h., Sept. 8th and 27th, fog and rain, evening 
to 9 p.m., great rush of small birds of many sorts. 

General Remarks. 

The report for 1880 compared with that of the previous year 
shows very similar results, as in 1879 a considerable proportion 
of the immigrants crossed at the more southern stations, or 
at the narrowest portion of the North Sea. If we divide the east 
coast into three divisions, one north-easterly from the Fame 
Islands to the Humber, mid-east from the Humber to Yarmouth, 
and south-eastern forward to the South Foreland, we find that in 
1879 the main body of migrants passed in the south-eastern 
division ; in 1880 they have been tolerably equally distributed 
over the mid and south-eastern. During the principal month of 
migration, October, the wind blew persistently day by day and 
week by week from northerly and easterly quarters, and to this 
cause we may fairly attribute the deflection of migrants to the 
south. In support of this I may quote the letter of Mr. Thos. 0. 
Hall of the Longstone Lighthouse, who, writing under date Feb. 
15th, 1881, says : — " The chief flight undoubtedly took place on 
the 15th and 16th of October, at which time I was on shore. I 
have been resident on the Fame Islands thirteen years, and 
dm'ing that time never remember seeing so few birds as we have 
had this autumn. I have remarked that when the flight takes 



EAST COAST OF ENGLAND. 68 

place with the wind at E. or N.E., the body of birds is to the 
south of us about Whitby and southward." 

Notwithstanding the enormous number of immigrants arriving, 
as shown in our retm-ned schedules from each station, we may be 
quite certain these returns only represent an almost inappreciable 
percentage of the actual number on passage. On days of 
uncertain light or on clear fine starlight nights, when migration 
is carried on at a considerable height, immense numbers of birds 
might pass any station for hours without a chance of observation ; 
and it is quite possible that, if the whole three hundred miles of 
coast were studded with floating posts of observation at the 
distance of half a mile, equal average results would have been 
obtained, our present stations on the light-vessels affording no 
more especial line of advantage than any other imaginary line 
drawn across the North Sea. Incredible although it may appear, 
we believe that the vast majority of the immigrants coming to us 
in the autumn in one broad front from east to west are such as 
cross with the intention of remaining the winter in some part or 
other of the British Islands, and naturally take the place of our 
own resident summer species which have left, or are about 
leaving us, for the south. 

As in 1879 the main line of migration has been a broad 
stream from east to west, and covering the whole of the English 
east coast, this is the line mainly followed by the Passeres. 
Taking this line as a basis, we find birds also occasionally 
coming from points north of east; but in the vast majority of 
instances the migration has had a decidedly southerly trend, 
coming from points south of east, and even direct from the 
southward. Again, there is in the autumn always a steady stream 
of migrants which closely follows the coast-line from N. to S., 
composed of birds either moving from more northerly districts of 
our islands, or of such immigrants coming from the east as strike 
the coast in more northern latitudes and then follow it to the 
south. The great wide E. to W. stream of migration is composed 
of some few well-known species which regularly come to us in the 
autumn, the great body undoubtedly remaining to winter ; placed 
in order of rotation according to their numerical superiority or 
otherwise, we find Alauda arvensis, Sturnus vulgaris, Corvus 
comix Sindfrugilegus, the Turdidce, including two native and two 
northern species,with sparrows, linnets, and chalfinches compose 



64 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

the bulk of the immigrants. Others, as Ruticilla phoenicurusy the 
SaxicolcBy and other soft-billed insect-eaters, although coming 
from the eastward, persistently follow the coast-line to the south. 
All the Limicolce and other shore birds, as well as the Geese, 
Ducks, Divers, Gulls, and sea-fowl generally, move from north to 
south as a general rule, the sea-fowl at some distance at sea, the 
waders along the coast. Although so far we have no stations, 
excepting Heligoland, on the European coast of the North Sea, 
we may, I think, fairly presume that there is similarly another 
stream of birds passing down the coast-line of Em'ope. Migration 
as observed on that island for many years points to the undoubted 
fact that the line followed by birds is, as a rule, from E. to W., 
and doubtless some portion of these Heligoland birds keep moving 
westward or south-westward, till eventually they strike our east 
coast. There are, however, many species which make Heligoland 
the western boundary of their autumn wanderings, and crossing, 
as they do, that island in enormous numbers, must eventually 
follow the coast-hne to the south, for the simple reason that they 
never occur on our own coast, except as very rare or occasional 
wanderers ; such are Motacilla alba and Jiava, Ruticilla suecica, 
Emheriza hortulana, Plectrophanes lapponiciis, Anthus Richardi, 
and, in a less degree, Miiscicapa luctuosa and Otocorys alpestris. 
These all, then, must pass southward along the European coast, 
as do doubtless an immense majority of those countless Sparrow- 
hawks, Siskins, and more familiar birds which cross the island in 
the autumn migration ; and just as occasionally some species, 
whose line of migration lies farther to the eastward still, turn up 
as wanderers to the old rock from the regular track, so do 
occasionally now one and now another of the regular Heligoland 
immigrants get blow^n across to om- side. 

The observations taken at some of our southern stations both 
in 1879 and 1880 show that, in the autumn, there is what may 
be called a double stream of birds crossing each other near the 
entrance of the English Channel, that is, from the Essex and Kent 
coast towards the S.E. on to the French and Belgian coast, and 
again in the opposite direction frofn the Belgian land to the coast of 
Kent. During the severe weather in the early part of 1881, as well 
as in December, flocks of birds came to us direct from the French 
coast, or from the south to the north. These must be considered 
purely local migrations, caused by outbui'sts of severe weather. 



EAST COAST OF ENGLAND. 65 

It is a curious fact that in nearly every case of birds passing 
the Casquets l.h. in the past autumn, they were travelling in a 
{/%// N.-^. direction, or from the French to the English coast, a line of 
migration which does not seem to be in proper accord with what 
we should imagine migrating birds would or rather ought to take. 
On reference to the chart of the Channel it is apparent that any 
flocks leaving the French coast at or near Cape de la Hague, and 
crossing. Alderney, when once off the Casquets might as readily 
and easily steer for the Start Point on the English side as across 
the wide break in the French coast for Port Sillon, each being 
about equal distances from the Casquets. 

As in 1879 birds have crossed in all hours of the day and 
night, and in all winds and weathers, the returns also show, as 
did the preceding, that they seldom fly dead to windward, except 
with light breezes, and that strong head winds are prejudicial to 
their passage. The line of flight mostly adopted is within three 
or four points of the wind ; they will go on well, even with a beam 
wind or some points short of beam, if not too strong. Small birds 
have often much difficulty in making head against a strongly- 
opposing wind. Mr. John Cutting, writing from the light- vessel 
on the Galloper Bank, says, that out of the number of small birds 
passing that station in October and November against strong 
adverse winds, he could not think they would ever reach land, 
they made such very slow progress, the wind being too strong 
and the distance from land so great. Even such strong-winged 
birds as the Grey Crow do not always cross in safety ; I have 
been told by an old fen farmer that, many years ago, when a 
great gale swept the Lincolnshire coast, at the time the Hooded 
Crow crossed, the coast was subsequently strewed with their 
bodies cast up by the sea. 

Birds are noticed at the stations as sometimes flying high, 
sometimes low; often it will be observed with northerly and 
easterly winds they will fly high, and with winds in opposite 
quarters, low. The state of weather at the time of migration has 
more, we think, to do with the height at which birds travel than 
the direction of the wind. On clear light nights they travel high, 
as a rule, but in fog, and thick murky weather, rain or snow, not 
far above the waves. On thick nights, indeed, lost birds will 
wheel for hours round a lightship, but with the first break in the 
clouds or streak of early dawn are on their course again. At the 

K 



66 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

Casquets, ^Yhich is a revolving light, the larger hirds follow the 

rays, but do not often strike the glass. 

With such favourable passages as light head winds afford, 

our immigrants are so little fatigued that they will not alight on 

reaching land, but keep on their course into the interior. I have 

watched for hours flock after flock arriving on the east coast, 

coming directly from westward, Eooks, Starlings, Lapwings, and 

Snow Buntings, and keeping on in a direct westerly direction as 

far as the eye or a good glass were able to follow. Often, too, 

when on the hills, miles from the sea, I have seen migrating 

flocks passing inland. Larks in straggling flocks, carrolling 

cheerily as they pass ; there is no bird which migrates so 

cheerily and light-heartedly as the Lark, ever ready to burst into 

song on the least occasion. At other times, with adverse winds, 

I have watched migrants scarce able to struggle on shore dropping 

in the first shelter, or even on the bare wind-swept coast. At 

Lynn Well light-vessel large numbers of migrants passed day 

by day, and for the entire day, during October, from S.E. 

or S.S.E., and even S. to N.W. From the position of this 

station off Lynn Deeps at the bottom of the Wash, under 

the shelter of the north-westerly trend of the coast, these 

migrants must have first crossed the northern part of the 

county of Norfolk, without alighting, on their way to the fens of 

Lincolnshire and Cambridge, and this both by day and night. 

'* Yet stoop not, weary, to the welcome land, 
Though the dark night is near." 

It is very remarkable how suddenly the stream of migration 
commences running, and how suddenly it stops again. We 
watch, at early morning, a flock of Larks or Hooded Crows come 
to land ; others soon follow, and then for some hours — it may be 
from 8 a.m. to 1 p.m. — there is a constant arrival of migrants ; 
and then migration, at least for that day, is over, and not a single 
wanderer will be seen. 

As a rule, the young of the year migrate some weeks in 
advance of the old birds ; this holds good with all orders and 
species. In the spring the males often migrate in advance of 
the females. 

The time of migration of any particular species extends over 
a considerable period ; sometimes it is over in four or five weeks, 
in other cases going on for months, and even half a year ; for. 



BAST COAST OF ENGLAND. 67 

practically, such birds as the Lark and Starling are migrating all 
the year round. In every case the migration of a set species will 
continue, day by day, or week by week, till it attains the 
maximum by a ''great rush," the main body passing, and then 
gradually falling off, till the migration of that species is 
completed. 

Independent of the normal or ordinary migration, we have 
frequently local migrations, due to sudden changes of weather, or 
in search of fresh feeding-grounds. These "great rushes" of 
immigrants, coming helter-skelter on to our east coast, are often 
accompanied or followed very closely by outbursts of severe 
weather ; and a sudden increase of cold in winter will almost 
clear a whole district of its birds ; in fact, all birds are very 
susce^Dtible to changes of weather, and, if closely watched, will 
indicate by their movements the coming change. On Jan. 12th, 
in this year, when in the Humber marshes, I noticed Larks and 
Snow Buntings passing from N. to S. from 9 a.m. to 2 p.m., 
separate flocks for some hom-s, and after 11 p.m., when the 
snow commenced, continuous. 

Birds in the early autumn do not, it is evident, migrate for 
lack of food, for the young of the Liinicoke are on our coast at a 
time when the supply of insect-food in high northern latitudes is 
the most abundant ; and our own insect-eating birds are often 
away long before there is, or can be, any falling off in food. On 
the same grounds it is not changes in the seasons which can 
induce young birds, having no knowledge from experience, to 
return south in the heat of the Arctic latter- summer ; as to the 
Jiow and the why of the whole matter, we must be content for the 
present to say nothing, but continue to collect facts. 

In 1880 the main body of the migrants crossed between the 
15th and end of October, the greater number perhaps on the 17th 
of that month. 



68 



WEST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 

Printed forms, letters, and remarks were forwarded to thirty- 
eight stations on the west coast of Scotland and the Isles, being 
two more than in 1879, viz., Bahama Lightship and Langness 
Lighthouse, both in Isle of Man.* 

We have received in all retmiied, lilled-in schedules from 
twenty-six stations, being two more than last year. 

Only four stations have not sent in returns, which sent them 
in last year,t but, to make up for this, we have gained six from 
stations which sent us none last 3'ear,+ besides adding one from 
one of the new stations. § 

A marked improvement is apparent in these returns, and it 
is evident that very general interest is being taken in the Avork. 
Altogether, our west coast returns are quite satisfactory, and it 
gives us much pleasure to think that the first year's reports have 
really interested our obliging correspondents. We hope that the 
present general report will succeed in enlisting the whole body in 
the service. W^e can as yet only repeat, that we believe that 
interesting and curious results will in time be arrived at ; but we 
deprecate any attempt at present to arrive at these, desiring first 
a firm basis of facts to build upon, which can only be obtained by 
continued attention and careful record, for a few years longer, of 
a large mass of statistics. 

The stations from which co-operation was asked are the 
following, commencing with the most northerly — Cape Wrath. 
Those from which returns have been received are marked with 
a *; those which sent returns both last year and this have 
two ** ; those which sent none last year but have done so this 
year have a f prefixed ; those which sent returns last year but 
none this year are printed in itaUcs. Stations added this 
year have the date, 1880, preceding them. 

* Mr. Philip Kermode received the Isle of Man returns, aud forwarded 
them to ine afterwards for incorporation with the Scottish ones, 
f Devaar ; Pladda ; Lamlash ; Little Koss. . 

4 Stornoway; Ushenish; Kyleakiri; Lismore; Turnbcrry; Douglas Head. 
§ Bahama liank (l.v. . 



WEST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 



69 



West Coast of Scotland. 

MaINLx^ND. 



81. -*Cape Wrath. 

82. ^:--=:'Khu Stoir. 



Height of centre of 
light above water. 

... 400 ft. John M'Gill. 
... 195 William Wither. 



83. 'i-^Biitt of Lewis. 

84. fStornoway. 
^-Island Glass. 



85. 

86. 

87. 
88. 



89. 

90. 

91. 

92. 

93. 

94. 

95. 

96. 

97. 

98. 

99. 
100. 
101. 
10-2. 
103. 
104. 
105. 
106. 
107. 
108. 
109. 
110. 
111. 
112. 
113. 
Hi. 



=:==:=Monach Island. 

fUshenibh. ... 
Barra Head. 



Outek Hebkides, 

... 170 
56 

... 130 
Upper 150 
Lower 62 

... 170 
... 083 



^1 
2J 



George Edgar. 
John Grierson. 
William Innes. 



James Youngclause. 



Peter Carrie. 



Mainland, Skye, and In 

Roua, Skye. 
•jKyleakiu, Rosspire. 
---'•'Isle Ornsay, Skye. 
=:--''Ardnamurchan Point, Argyleshire 
Hynisli Signal Tower, Tiree. 
Skerry vore, off Tiree. 
=:-:=Dhulieartach, S.W. of Ross of Mull 

^!^=:=Sound of Mull, Mull 

Corran Ferry, Loch Eil. ... 
•jLismore Island, Oban. ... 
"^Fladda, Easdale.... 
=:":=Rhuvaal, Islay. ... 

■'^]\rA)thu)''s Head, Iday. ... 
=:":=Skervuile, Jura. ... 
=:":=Rhinus of Islay. ... 
'I'-^i^Lochindaul, Islay. 

Mull of Kintyre 

Sauda, Kintyre Sound ... 
Devaar, Kintyre. ... 
Pladda, Arrau. ... 
Lamlash, An an. ... 
fTurnberry, Ayrshire. 
':==:=Corsewall, Wigtown. 
^'=:=Loch Ryan, Wigtown. ... 
=ot^Portpatrick, Wigtown. ... 
^i-i'MuU of Galloway, Wigtown. 



NEii Hebrides. 



222 
53 
58 

180 



145 

55 

38 

11)3 

42 

147 

128 

73 

150 

50 

297 

165 

120 

130 

46 

96 

112 

46 

37 

325 



David M'Culloch. 
James Loughtei]. 
David Laidlaw. 



150 William Crow. 



James Ewing. 
WilUam M'Lellan. 

Alexander Murrav. 

David Spink. 

John Ewing. 
Andrew Lyall. 
WiUiam Maill. 



Andrew Nisbet. 
Robert Laidlaw. 
Ralph Ewing. 
James Beggs. 
N. Morrison. 



175 


ft. 






100 




James Bly 


the. 


104 




Alexander 


M* Donald 


12-2 








L.V. 


1 


— Johns. 





70 REPOKT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

115. Little Ross, Kirkcudbrit/ht. 

116. *-Point of Ayre, Isle of Man. 

117. fDouglas Head, Isle of Man. 

118. Chickens Rock, Isle of Man. 

119. =:a880.— Bahama Bank, Isle of Man (l.v.): 
r-20. 1880. — Langness Lighthouse, do 



SPKIXG MIGRATION, 1880.§ 

SEPARATE REPORT ON EACH SPECIES. 

Strigid.e. — At Skerry vore, one Brown Owl appeared on 10th 
May, at '2.30 p.m., in showery weather. 

Falconid.!:. — At Douglas Head, one "Black Hawk" 
(Sparrowliawk?) was noted at 8 a.m., in clear weather, with 
light E.X.E. breeze. 

HiRUNDiNiD.E. — The earliest date on which Swallows are 
recorded from any west coast stations is April 7th, and this at 
one of our most northerly stations, viz., Butt of Lewis. This is 
followed by April 17tli at Douglas Head, one of our most 
southern stations in the Isle of Man ; seen at 12 noon ; wind 
light S.E. breeze, clear or showers; these were not again 
observed. Again, on April 24th, their arrival is recorded at 
Rhinns of Islay. Thereafter none are noted until 6th May, at 
Loch Ryan, in Wigtownshire, when a flight of fifty was observed, 
followed by twenty and fifteen on the 8th and lith : winds from 
N.W. through X. to E. and fresh, clear to haze. At Skerry vore, 
one was seen on 10th May, in calm, hazy and rainy weather. 
On 11th, 12th and 13th, eight flew about the Point of Ayr. On 
24th, four were seen flyintj south past Ardnamurchan station. 
On 22nd, one at Monach Island ; Avinds from S.W. to N.W., 
fresh. The remaining records are in June. On June 14th, at 
Ardnamm-chan, two again seen flying southwards ; and on 22nd, 



\ Light- vessels being only a few feet above the sea, I have not indicated 
the exact elevation, which, however, is'nsually about 30 feet. 

5 In writing out the data of the spring migration, I take the most 
southerly stations first, reversing the sequence of the autumn records. 

jl It is noted on the schedule from this -station that the lighthouse, 
" being inland, little or any observations on the migi'atiou of birds can be 
noted accurately." 



WEST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 71 

at Skerryvore ; calm, hazy weather. Possibly these June records 
of birds flying south may belong to the autumn migration. 
It thus appears that a spring r^/s/i took place in the earlier part 
of May^ — from the 6th to the 14th. About the same time, 
viz.y May 20th, a flock of ** Martin Swallows," Hirundo iirhica^ 
appeared at the Butt of Lewis during light W. wind, with haze ; 
they stopped about three hours and then flew off, going S.W. 

Note, — Swallows and Martins were first observed at Ballina, 
Co. Wicklow, Ireland, by Mr. E. Warren, on April 19th. 

Swift, Cypselus. — First noted at Ballina by Mr. Warren, on 
May 12th. 

Wheatear, Saxicola oenanthe. — Records from three stations 
only in spring, viz., Skervuile, Monach, and Butt of Lewis. 
Earliest date at Skervuile (most southern of the three). May 1st, 
where one was seen at lantern at midnight; wind light S. 
Next date is May 4th, at Monach, when about twenty, mixed 
with Larks and Wagtails, were seen and two killed between 8.30 
p.m. and 3 a.m. ; wind light from N. to W. The latest and only 
other record dates May 20th, at Butt of Lewis, where five were 
seen ; wind light W., clear. 

Wagtail, Motacilla Yarrellii. — Two stations, viz., at Kyleakin 
and Butt of Lewis. At K^deakin, April 1st, twenty-six rested at 
4 p.m., wind E.S.E., haze; 2nd, twenty-four rested at 8 a..m, 
wind S.E., haze. At Butt of Lewis, April 13th, a flock at 7 a.m., 
stopped a few days and left flying south, light E. wind, clear; 
and a few days later, ''one lighter than the rest" left, going 
south. At Kyleakin, April 17th, twelve were seen flying S.E. at 
7 a.m., light breeze, with fog; and on 18th, at 1 p.m., twelve 
more rested and then flew off south, wind light S.W., and 
fog. 

Starling, Sturnus vulgaris. — I have but few records of the 
spring migration,!*? 2"., from Lochindaul, Fladda, and Dhuheartach. 
The earliest at Fladda, April 4th, when twenty-four were seen at 
10 a.m., breeze fresh, with showers, and clear. At Dhuheartach, 
April 13th, between midnight and 8 a.m., three birds rested ; 
night foggy, and wind light N. At Lochindaul, May 18ih, some 
were seen, wind moderate, and weather foggy. 

Skylark, Alaiida arvensis. — At Dhuheartach and Monach, 
April 13th, ten at night, wind light N., cloudy, seven killed ; and 
May 1st, one at midnight, wind S., haze; and at these 



72 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

stations, on May 4th, flock, mixed with Wheatears and 
Wagtails, from 8.30 p.m. till 3 a.m., wind light W. to N., haze 
and rain. 

Cuckoo, Cncidus canorus. — The following are the stations 
where it was noted as first seen or heard, commencing in the 
south : — At Point of Ayre, May 1st, light airs and haze. At 
Lochindaul, May 16th, E., clear; the reporter adds, "hut is 
earlier in Islay." At Rhinns of Islay, April 21st, wind light W. 
At Skervuile, May 10th, first seen, wind N., clear. At Stornoway, 
May 4th. At Kyleakin, May 5th. At Ehu Stoir, June 15th, 
wind light N., haze. 

Note. — First noted at Ballina, Ireland, hy Mr. Warren, on 
May 12th. 

Oystercatcher, Hcematopus ostralegiis. — At Lochindaul, 
Dhuheartach, and Island Glilais. At Dhuheartach, April 14th 
and 17th, 8 and 10 a.m., ten and seventeen resting or feeding, 
wind light N.W., haze or fog. At Lochindaul, May 20th and 21st, 
10 a.m., resting, light wind, fog. At Island Ghlais, June 30th, 
6 p.m., two feeding, calm, and heavy showers. 

Curlew, Xumenius arquata. — So far as a spring migration can 
he separated by the data at command, the whole season has 
apparently being occupied by Curlews in moving about, the 
results are as follows : — Beginning on 16th, south, we find 
spring records at Lochindaul, Rhuvaal, Dhuheartach, Monach, 
and Skerryvore. The first note dates March 1st, at Rhuvaal; 
eight seen, S.W. gale and rain. The second at Dhuheartach, 
April 13tli, 4 p.m., when three were seen, wind light, cloudy. 
Thereafter at Lochindaul, May 14th. At Skerryvore, May 23rd. 
At Monach, June 13th. At Lochindaul, June 14th. At Skerry- 
vore, June 23rd. Winds variable E., N.W. to S.W. 

Whimbrel. — "May fowl" arrived on Monach, on their way 
north, upon May 8th, when three were seen flying about, wind 
light N., clear. On May 25th, several parties of from three or 
four to six seen flying between Monach and Haskeir rocks, wind 
fresh S.W., clear. The note is added, "Arrive in May, leave in 
July." 

Note. — Mr. R. Warren notes their first appearance at Ballina 
on May 1st. 

Snipe. — At Dhuheartach, April 13th, three Snipe killed, 
strong N. breeze, cloudy. 



WEST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 7B 

Corn Crake, Crex pratensis. — The Corn Crake was heard at 
Kyleakin on June 11th, and at Stornoway on May 4th, clear and 
fine ; and at Lochindaul on May 18th, at night. 

Note. — At BalHna it was first noted by Mr. Warren on 
May 2nd. 

Wild Goose. — At Rhu Stoir, May 12th, 10 a.m., twelve Wild 
Geese seen, three males and three females ; light N. airs, clear. 

Ducks, Anatidce. — At Rhuvaal, Island Ghlais, and Ehu Stoir. 
At Rhuvaal, March 8th, great numbers daily seen, where, how- 
ever, they became scarcer between April 20th and 30th. At Rhu 
Stoir, June 18th, 10 a.m., six Eiders, three males and three 
females, wind light N., clear ; and July 28th, 8.30 a.m., thirty 
"Wild Ducks," wind N.E., haze and rain. 

Terns. — Two evidently paired birds seen at Rhu Stoir on 
May 18th, light to fresh variable winds. On May 26th, about 
2 p.m., some scores of Terns were seen at Monach during S.W. 
gale, and were the first that arrived to breed there ; and on June 
14th, lots of nests containing two to three eggs were seen. At 
Skervuile, May 10th, Terns were first observed this spring, wind 
light E., and haze; and by 31st great numbers had passed; 
some w^ere again seen on June 18th, in similar weather. At 
Rhinns of Islay, Msij 12th, three seen at noon, fresh E. breeze; 
and all during June, large numbers of " Tick Terns" fishing in 
Lochindaul. At Stornoway, June 5th, they kept arriving at all 
hours, and were the first to come to the breeding grounds. 

Note. — Mr. J. T. Garrioch notes the spring arrival of Terns at 
Lerwick, in Shetland, from the north, on May 22nd, in ' The 
Zoologist' {(J. v., 1880, p. 302); and, in a letter to me, he 
substantiates his observation. Mr. Robert Warren notes the 
first appearance of Sandwich Terns at Ballina, Ireland, on March 
24th, and of Common Terns on May 14th. 



AUTUMN MIGEATION, 1880. 
SEPARATE REPORT ON EACH SPECIES. 

Falconid^. — Two Sparrowhawks appeared at Rhu Stoir, in 
attendance upon flocks of Finches and Larks, on Oct. 20th, 
during light variable breezes, with snow. Also at Skerrj^vore, a 
Hawk — probably of the same species, or a Merlin — lived on the 
small birds on Oct. 14th and 15th; whilst at Dhuheartach a 

L 



74 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

Hawk makes a regular visit, to prey upon the birds which rest on 
the rock. (See oui- first Eeport for 1879, ' Zool.,' May, 1880, 
p. 190.) 

Swift. — At Ushenish, North Uist,* June 13th, 1 p.m., five 
Swil'ts seen flying south, with S. wind, and haze. 

Note. — Mr. R. Service notes the species as unusually abundant 
in 1880. He observed a large flock of Swifts on Aug. 4th, 
proceeding in a southerly dii-ection. The most of the local birds, 
however, still remained on the 11th. 

Swallows, Hirundinidce. — Swallows were no longer seen after 
July 16th, at the Point of Ayre, Isle of Man, on which day twenty 
young were noticed, until again on Aug. 15th, when eight were 
seen flying about. At Turnberry, from thirty to forty were seen 
during the daytime on Aug. 26th, in light E. airs; and again 
fifty to sixty on Aug. 31st, and forty to fifty on Sept. 2nd. 
Numbers were also seen at Mull of Galloway and at Loch Ryan. 
Swallows collected on Oct. 4th and flew away S.W., whilst at 
Portpatrick great numbers were seen resting and then flying off 
S. on Oct. 15th. This S.W. corner of Scotland appears to be a 
point of departure of the species, and of several others ; and I 
would invite special attention at stations all along the ^Yigton 
coast-line. f All the above observations on the autumn move- 
ments of Swallows were made dm-ing the daytime, and in hght 
E. to N.E. winds. A rush appears to have taken place end of 
August and beginning of September, and a later one as late as 
the middle of October. 

Note. — In 1879 the most northerly station was Ardnamurchan, 
and the appearance of Swallows much more general. The 
earliest record in 1879 of autumn migration was on July 29th, 
and the latest Sept. 25tli, as against this y-ear, July 16th and 
Oct. 15th. Careful attention to the collecting of migrants at 
these Wigton headlands would surely result in some interesting 
data. Mr. Robert Service writes me that all the headlands, also 
along the Stewartry coast-line, are gathering-places for the 
land-birds before proceeding southward. At daybreak, in 



* Though this dates early, I cannot but assign it here, and not to a spring 
movement. 

f See K. Gray and Thos. Anderson's ' Birds of Ayrsliire and Wigton- 
shire,' p. 5. 



WEST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 75 

September or October, Mr. Service has often watched departing 
flights of birds going off southward or seaward, over the Solway 
Firth. Large congregations of Swallows were observed by me at 
Kinross on telegraph wires on Aug. 3rd, and I was told that they 
congregate in the same place every autumn before leaving. 
There must have been many hundreds. 

The following really belongs to the East Coast Keport, and 
comes in under Mr. Hardy's notes from Berwickshire and the 
Borders : — Mr. Hardy has abundant evidence of the departure of 
Swallows in the border counties. He writes to me as follows : — 
"Old Cambus, Oct. 28th.— On Sept. 25th and 26th Swallows were 
here, and a pair of Martins were then on the coast, seven having 
been seen on the 26th. The main party assembled on the coast 
on the 21st and 22nd, and were not again visible, excepting this 
small party. I went down to the cave where the nests were, and 
evidently they were feeding young birds there. On the 30th 
they had not left a steading about a mile above Gilsland. They 
were present on Oct. 2nd and 3rd near Kosely Castle, eight miles 
south of Carlisle. On the 4th they were assembling on the roof 
of the Mansion House of Marchmont, Berwickshire, in great 
numbers, during snow and sleet. The 'Kelso Chronicle' of Oct. 
15th says, * Swallows were absent three weeks from Kelso, but 
again, in Kelso and the country round, their presence that week 
had been conspicuous. They had assembled in flocks.' The 
same paper of Oct. 22nd states that, 'On Oct. 17th a good many 
Swallows were flying about Jedburgh.' At Brampton, Cumber- 
land, they were seen on Oct. 16th, 'circling round the church for 
several days previous.' On Sept. 22nd, Swallows still at Horsley, 
in the valley of the Eye, and a Martin still had young in a nest 
in the corner of a window." 

Besides the above, it is worth while to take notice of an 
account of migration that appeared in an early volume of the 
' Proceedings of the Zoological Society,' relating to the South-west 
district of Scotland : — " An extract of a letter from Capt. Fayrer, 
C.M.Z.S., was read. It was dated on board H. M.'s Packet 
' Arrow,' Port Patrick, Oct. 23rd, 1831, and referred to the 
migration of certain birds from that neighbourhood. That of the 
Larks commenced about Oct. 12th. 'Their numbers,' says Capt. 
Fayrer, 'are beyond anything I would venture to state, but 
millions They -start at daylight, steer directly across to 



76 REPORT OX THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. " 

the Capelona Islands, off Belfast Loch, and seem to prefer the 
wind directly against them. Very large flocks of Starlings have 
arrived within the last few days ; they start hefore sunrise, hut 
steer to the southward. The Lapwings have also arrived, hut 
these birds do not take their flight till day has set well in ; they 
appear to go directly across. I see all these birds at each end of 
their passage (twenty-one miles), and few, I think, perish." 
(P.Z.S., 1831, p. 145.) 

Wren. — Returns from Skerryvore, Dhuheartach, Sker^iiile, 
and Turnberry. The earHest date available was at Dhuheartach, 
Aug. 18th, when one was seen flying S. at noon, during light 
S.W. wind and haze. None are again reported until Oct. 1st, 
when "Wrens" were seen mixed with Larks and Thrushes; 
winds variable, light, and haze. Then at Skerryvore, Oct. 9th, 
one fl^'ing about at 11 a.m., light N.E. breeze, clear; and at 
Turnberry, Oct. 12th, one struck the lantern at midnight, wind 
light N.E. airs. In the autumn migration of 1879 {q.r., loc. cit.) 
records came from Monach Island and Dhuheartach. Earliest 
Aug. 17th, latest Dec. 9th. 

GoLDCREST. — At Turnberry, Sept. 24th, 3 a.m., one struck, 
but was not killed, wind light S., and haze; and at Corsewall, 
Sept. 27th till 30th, there appears to have been a migration. On 
27th, two were seen to strike the lantern at 2 a.m., in fresh south 
breeze and haze ; on 28th, two also struck in clear weather, 
light S. breeze ; and on 30th, eight remained around the lights 
from 8 p.m. till daylight, wind light S.E., and haze. From the 
Mull of Galloway, the negative note is given, " None seen this 
year." In 1879, numbers were reported (see Eeport, 1879) at 
Mull of Galloway on July 18th — only date. 

Note. — Mr. E. Warren, in lit., notes the unusual scarcity of 
Gold-crested Wrens at Ballina at the end of July, 1880. 

KoBiN, Erithaca ruhecula. — The most northern station where it 
is noted is Cape Wrath, where one bird arrived upon Oct. 20th, and 
remained until Jan. 11th (when the schedule was returned), or 
later. It came at 11.30 a.m., with an E. wind and snow. My 
correspondent adds, '* It is much thought of." I have ten records 
from eight stations, viz., Cape Wrath, Stornoway, Kyleakin (2), 
Isle Ornsay, Dhuheartach, Rhuvaal, Lismore, and Turnberry. 
These date from Aug. 18th (Dhuheartach) and Sept. 4th 
(Kyleakin) to Dec. 31st (Stornoway), where one was observed for 



WEST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 77 

several days previous to that date. Other dates are, Sept. 8th, 
(Isle Ornsay), 24th (Turnberry), Oct. 20th (Cape Wrath, as 
above), Nov. 7th (Kyleakin and Lismore), Dec. 15th (Lismore), 
Dec. 27th (Ehuvaal). All the observations were made during 
the daytime, except at Lismore and Turnberry. In August the 
wind at Dhuheartach was light S.W. on 18th, wdth haze ; the 
one Eobin seen flew off S. after resting. At Kyleakin, Sept. 4th, 
four birds seen were flying S.W., wind light W., clear. At 
Turnberry, Sept. 24th, one struck at 3 a.m., in light S. breeze, 
and haze. At Isle Ornsay, one seen. At Cape Wrath, in 
October. At Kyleakin, Nov. 7th, three, wind S.E., clear; and 
numbers seen at Lismore mingling with Starlings and Larks all 
night, wind strong S.W., haze and rain. At Ehuvaal, Dec. 27th, 
after stormy weather, two flew about and stayed for a few days ; 
and at Stornoway, Dec. 31st and a few days previously, one was 
seen. On 15th, numbers were round the lights at Lismore, along 
with Thrushes, Blackbirds, Grey and Green Linnets, in large 
flocks, wind strong N.E., and snow. In 1879, Eobins were not 
reported from stations further north than Kyleakin. 

Wheateae, Saxicola cenanthe. — I have eight or nine records 
from three stations on the west coast in autumn, viz., Butt of 
Lewis and Dhuheartach. The earliest date is Aug. 13th, when 
one was seen at Dhuheartach between 7 and 8 p.m., arriving 
with light N. wind, and remaining; and about one hundred, 
mostly young birds, left the neighbourhood of the Butt of Lewis, 
where — about a mile from the lighthouse — they had been collecting 
for some days before. Up to Aug. 17th and 18th, a few — seven 
on 17th and six on 18th — were seen at Dhuheartach about 8 a.m., 
wind light and haze, where they rested and flew off south. On 
Aug. 19th, one was killed on the lantern of Douglas Head light- 
house at 11 p.m., wind E.N.E., and haze. At Dhuheartach, 
Sept. 10th, thirty rested, light S. wind, and haze ; and between 
Sept. 16th and Oct. 1st, large numbers were seen at the lantern 
of the Butt of Lewis lighthouse, and many were caught and 
released. Skerryvore was the most northerly station in 1879. 
Aug. 15th was the earliest record in 1879, and the latest on 
Sept. 28th. 

Note. — Late occurrences of the Wheatear are noted by Mr. 
Hardy in Berwickshire. On Sept. 17th they were seen at the 
shore and not again afterwards, but a few were present at 



78 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

Berwick, behind the pier, on Oct. 12th. This is the latest date I 
have on the east coast of Scotland. I place the note here — under 
the west coast report — for special comparison with the following : — 
Wheatear. — An unusually late stay of this species is recorded by 
Mr. Service in Wigtonshire {vide ' Zoologist,' Feb. 1881, pp. 54, 
55). Since the note appeared in ' The Zoologist,' I have had 
some more correspondence regarding these late Wheatears — 7th 
December. Mr. Bruce is strongly of my opinion, that these birds 
u^ere really migrating when they flew away northwards, as they 
were seen still carrying on when fully a mile away. Before this 
they had remained for two or three days with Bullfinches. About 
six weeks afterwards ''these same Bullfinches" took a similar 
route and disappeared ; they were seen departing. I am inclined 
to agree with my friend and fellow-worker, Mr. Cordeaux, that 
these Wheatears probably belonged to the larger race, which 
have more arboreal habits than our own. If this is so, the 
observation made by Mr. Bruce still further bears out the 
probability of their foreign origin. As regards the more arboreal 
habits of the larger race, I have explained elsewhere ('Ibis,' 1876, 
p. 310) that arboreal habits of such species as Gulls, Curlews, 
Snipe, Snow Buntings, &c., in North-east Kussia, are probably 
brought about by the flooded conditions of the country there, at 
the time of the arrival in spring of these migrants. The habit 
no doubt grows and even becomes hereditary, and is carried into 
other countries and other climes in autumn. Larger races 
usually indicate more northern extension, and, in my opinion, 
abnormal arboreal habits of certain species indicate that they are 
natives of a land subject to constantly recurring floods. For 
these reasons I am still inclined to adhere to my opinion that 
these Wigtonshire Wheatears, at the late date of Dec. 9th, 1880, 
were resting during their regular migration, and departed again 
upon an extension of that same migration. They were, in my 
belief, strangers, and not bred in the country. 

Hedgesparrow. — See under Linnet. 

Wagtail. — At Dhuheartach, q, rush of Wagtails was observed 
upon Aug. 17th, 18th, 24th, and 26th, wind light and from S.W\ 
on 17th and 18th, when twelve were seen each day flying in a 
south-easterly direction — to E.S.E. and-S.E. on 24th — when two 
or three rested upon the rock. We had no records of this in 
1879. 



I 



WEST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 79 

Thkushes, Blackbirds, and King Ouzels. — Numerous returns 
from eleven stations, viz., Ehu Stoir, Butt of Lewis, Stornoway, 
Monach, Kyleakin, Khuvaal, Lochindaul, Corsewall, Point of 
Ayre, Douglas Head, and Bahama l.v. Earliest date July 19th, 
at Point of Ayre, when about 160 young Thrushes (Tiirdiis 
musicus) were seen to go off at 9 a.m., flying S. Latest dates 
Jan. 8th, 9th and 10th, 1881, when large flocks of Blackbirds, 
Thrushes and Snow Buntings flew about all day ; and all left on 
the 10th when the haze and fog cleared away; fresh E. breeze 
during this time. Between these dates, a migration appears to 
have taken place on Sept. 21st to 30th, shown, however, by 
records from only one station, viz., Stornoway. There, a good 
many Blackbirds and Thrushes arrived on Sept. 21st and left on 
30th. These were accompanied also by Stormcocks {Tiirdus 
inlaris, or Fieldfare); weather and wind ijot noted ; but see notes 
from Mid-Atlantic, infra. On 29th also, a number of Thrushes 
seen hovering round the lights at Douglas Head, along with 
Starlings and Blackbirds, in fog and haze. A desultory migration 
appears to have been carried on throughout October ; I have the 
following records : — At Khu Stoir, Oct. 1st, forty, besides Linnets, 
stayed four days (this comes also under the rush at end of 
September), wind variable, light breezes. At Bahama l.v., Oct. 
8th, three were killed at 10.20 p.m., wind light E.N.E. breeze, 
and cloudy. At Butt of Lewis, in the north, Oct. 15th, a good 
many arrived and stayed till Jan. 15th, 1881, or later. At 
Kyleakin, Oct. 20th, two were seen flying south, with strong S.E. 
wind ; and a few at Lochindaul. At Corsewall, one seen on 7th 
and one on 8th, one killed; strong N.E. wind and haze. In 
November, the earliest dates occur at the most southern stations ; 
thus at Point of Ayre, Nov. 2nd and 3rd, about three hundred 
Blackbirds and Thrushes, mixed with Starlings, kept about the 
locality till 4 a.m. on the 3rd; wind S. to S.E., very foggy. 
The direction of flight on departure was not noted, but they were 
seen to pass off about 7.30 a.m. Also at the Bahama l.v., on 
the 3rd, five were killed and others fell overboard. At Corsewall, 
on the same dates, one and two were seen, wind fresh E., and 
haze. At Kyleakin, Nov. 4th, seven Blackbirds seen flying south 
at 9 a.m., wind S.E., and sleet; again on 11th, two seen flying 
S., wind E., haze. At Monach, Nov. 16th, one in the garden, 
wind S. to N.N.E., strong, with sleet and snow. In December, 



80 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

at Monacb, a few Blackbirds were seen. Thus on Dec. 3rd, one 
male seen resting on the lantern at 10 i^.m., wind strong W., 
haze. Another female on Dec. 4th, 2 p.m., Hying about the 
garden, wind fresh S.S.W., haze and rain; and two Blackbh'ds, 
accompanied by Starlings, at 1 p.m., wind fresh S., clear in the 
garden and on the shore. As already noted, a still later flight 
was noted in January, 1881, at Point of Ayre, Isle of Man. 

Note. — Thrushes, amongst other birds (vide Eobins, Linnets, 
Snipe, Wagtails, &c.), were recognised by Capt. Eoy in Mid- 
Atlantic, 400 miles on this side of Newfoundland. To Mr. Robt. 
Gray I am indebted for some interesting and useful notes 
regarding the occm-rences of bu'ds in Mid- Atlantic : — '* The ship 
* Rutland,' of Greenock, Capt. Eoy. When about 400 miles on 
this side of Newfoundland, during continued heavy gales from 
the east, Capt. Eoy observed numbers of birds taking refuge on 
the 20th Scptemher, He had had head-winds all the way home 
to England, and birds more or less numerous round the ship till 
the 2bth October. When he was 400 — 500 miles from Ii'eland, a 
violent storm arose and blew prodigious flocks of birds before it. 
The deck and rigging were covered. Many died, and many were 
killed and used as food. The survivors, after staying a few days, 
were carried off by the force of the wind. Capt. Eoy observed 
one Eobin, lots of Linnets, Snipe, Thrushes, Wagtails, &c. 
Heavy rains accompanied the storm." Mr. Gray continues, 
" My brother-in-law, on his way to Boston in one of the Cunard 
steamers, saw a Jackdaw and a Starling come on board on Oct. 
23rd,- during a gale fi'om the east, when 550 miles from the Lish 
coast, easterly winds having prevailed for several days. On Oct. 
24th, 850 miles from land, one Starling perched for a few 
minutes, k small bird like a Linnet hoverecl about the rigging, 
bet did not j)erch. One Water Eail was cai)tured and detained 
ten days, 1200 miles from land, and two Sandpipers. Writing 
again on Dec. 21st, he tells me that on the outward passage, lat. 
42^ N., long. 54° W., he had in view at one time fi*om five to six 
hundi-ed Gulls, various species-^an extraordinary number to be 
so far from land. When about 1080 miles from Ireland, going 
out, two Crossbills flew on board. Both were captured." 

Thomas Anderson (son of Thomas xlnderson, joint author 
with Mr. Robert Gray of ' The Birds of x\yrshii'e and Wigto^Mi- 
shiie') and Mr. Gray inform me, a good observer, and who has 



WEST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 81 

for many years kept a bird-log, at Mr. Kobert Gray's request. 
Being chief-engineer on board a Cunard liner, he has crossed the 
Atlantic some four hundred times, during most or all of which 
time he has kept careful notes. It is hoped that he or Mr. Gray 
will give us the benefit of these notes before long, as they cannot 
fail to be of great interest and use to students of migration. 

Mr. T. E. Bruce, of Slogarrie, observed some Missel Thrushes 
flying south on March 4th, 1881, and on the same day Snow 
Buntings. Great storm of snow on March 4th and 5th, from 
N.E. ; this no doubt a local and temporary migration caused by 
the severe weather. The Missel Thrushes having previously 
arrived on spring migration, compelled to return again. 

CoRviD^. — The returns are from Monach, Sound of Mull, 
Khinns of Islay, Portpatrick, and Bahama (l.v.) Earliest at 
Portpatrick, Aug. 16th, flocks flying round between 11 a.m. and 
4 p.m., wind light E., and clear (probably only a local movement). 
Latest at Monach, Dec. 29tli, when about a dozen v/ere seen at 
noon flying south over the island. At Sound of Mull, in October, 
about two hundred *'Daws" are reported flying N.E. on the 9th, 
wind light E. and clear; and at Khinns of Islay, on the 10th, 
flocks of Black Crows (Piooks ?) seen flying W., wind light, clear. 
At Bahama l.v., on 24th, one flying E. at 7.25 a.m., wind N.W., 
and showery. But in November there appears to have been a 
rush; also on Nov. 5th, ten '* Crows" seen at Bahama l.v. flying 
W.N.W. at 8 a.m., wind moderate N.W. by N. (the strength 
registered is 4) ; and at the same station, on the 25th, about two 
hundred and fifty ''Crows" were seen flying from E. to W., with 
a W.S.W. wind, strength 6, and weather gloomy. In my return 
from Monach I find that six " small black Crows," which may 
have been either Books or Jackdaws, were seen passing over the 
island, flying north-west or north, in the direction of the Lews, 
driven along by a strong S.S.E. gale upon Nov. 20th. 

A^o^e.— In 52° 50' north lat. and 22° 21' west long., being 475 
miles off the Irish coast, after six weeks' easterly gale and winds, 
wind E.S.E. for ten hours previous, two Books flew to the barque 
'East.' One fell exhausted on deck, and the other into the sea. 
The former was shown to me by the Captain — Capt. Younoun — 
on board the 'East' at Granton. The above, as related to me, 
was upon Nov. 19th ; and it may be interesting in connection 
with this to read the notes supplied by Mr. K. Gray, as given 

M 



82 KEPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

under Thrush. Of a later observation at Monach, on Dec. 29th, 
I have ah*eady spoken. 

Starling, Stiirnns vulfiaris. — I have received many returns of 
this species, as is usually the case in autumn. Commencing at 
our most northerly stations, I have returns from Cape Wrath, 
Ehu Stoir, Stornoway, Island Ghlais (or Glas), Monach, Kyleakin, 
Fladda, Ehinns of Islay, Lochindaul, Corsewall, Point of Ayre, 
Douglas Head, and Bahama (l.v.) The earliest dates are 
August ; arrive and remain all the season afterwards at Lochin- 
daul ; but at Ehinns of Islay, adjoining, arrive in September and 
remain; resident thereafter. At Corsewall, Aug. 4th, a flock 
flying south, fresh S. wind. At Kyleakin, Sept. 12th, three, 
moderate S. wind, and haze. At Cape Wrath, Sept. 14th, twenty 
young, flying from E. to W. (see remarks on occurrences in Mid- 
Atlantic, under Thrushes, antea, p. 80) ; on 17th, a large flock at 
10 p.m., wind strong S., with haze and rain; stayed a few days 
and then left. At Corsewall, Sept. 28th, a flock flying S., strong 
breeze, clear. Sept. 29th and 30th, a number seen hovering 
round the lights of Douglas Head Lighthouse at midnight, with 
Thrushes and Blackbirds, and none seen after daylight came in. 
At Kyleakin, Nov. 3rd and 5th, forty adult and. young rested, 
wind light N. to light S., clear, and sleet. Also on Nov. 2nd and 
3rd, whilst numbers were striking all night till dawn at Corsewall, 
a large number were flying round Point of Ayre lights, mixed 
with Thrushes and Blackbirds, and thirty-six were killed; and on 
same date, one was killed at lantern of Douglas Head : and six 
killed and fell overboard at Bahama l.v., out of a large flock of 
mixed Thrushes and Starlings. At Monach, Nov. 6th, one adult 
rested, wind light N.W., drizzle. At Monach, Nov. 17th, twenty- 
four young, N.N.E. gale, sleet and snow; left on 18th. At 
Stornoway, Dec. 19th and 20th, large flocks, wind E., sleet and 
rain. At Monach, Dec. 27th, a flock of young birds, along with 
a large flock of Larks, flying about the garden and shores at 
1 p.m., wind S., fresh and clear; and again on Jan. 14th, 1881, 
a great many flocks, mixed old and young, at 10 a.m., flying to 
and fro between the island and North Uist, apparently being 
local movements caused by heavy snow in Uist. In 1879, the 
most northerly record comes from Ardnamurchan, whereas this 
year, as is usually the case, they are much more general. The 
earliest date in 1879 was Aug. 14th, at Loch Eyan and M'Arthur's 



WEST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 83 

Head, whilst this year it was the 4th, at Corsewall. The latest 
in 1879 was Dec. 18th, at Skervuile. This year, in December, 
at Stornoway. 

Finches, Fringilliclce. — At Khu Stoir, Sept. 17th, large flocks 
at 10 p.m., strong S. wind, haze and rain; stayed a few days 
with Starlings and then left. Crossbills (vide Mr. Anderson's 
notes on Mid- Atlantic, antea, p. 80). Mr. Eobt. Gray afterwards 
informed me that the two Crossbills captured are of the American 
species (Loxia leucojptera) /]\xdigmg from Mr. Anderson's description. 
The same species was captured by the late Dr. Dewar on board 
ship (Royal Phyl. Soc, and ' Birds of West of Scotland ') ; 
and at same locality Finches were seen on Oct. 20th, light 
variable winds, and snow. Only returns in 1879 were from 
Dhuheartach on Aug. 24th, and Oct. 4th and 8th. 

Tree Sparrow. — On Lismore, Nov. 15th, a small flock 
observed, strong N. wind, clear. 

Chaffinch. — Only one record on west coast is given, viz.^ at 
Bahama l.v., Oct. 11th, when one is recorded flying N.W. at 
8 a.m., wind E.N.E., and haze. 

Linnets. — Returns from Skerryvore, Lismore, and Point of 
Ayre. Earliest date Sept. 12th, when a rush appears to have 
taken place past Point of Ayre between that date and Sept. 29th; 
principally, however, on Sept. 12th and 20th, when young birds 
to the number of fifty or sixty — on the 20th mixed with Hedge- 
sparrows — were seen flying W. on both days about 8 a.m., wind 
light W., clear. They appeared plentiful also on the 28th, but a 
few only seen on 29th. Again in same locality there appeared to 
be a rush on Oct. 18th and 24th, when twenty and one hundred 
Greenfinches were seen, in light and fresh W. wind ; and at 
Skerryvore, Oct. 14th, twelve "Grey Linnets" flew about the 
rock, wind light E., with haze. On Nov. 13th, a small flock 
frequented Lismore during the day, wind strong S.W. to W., and 
rain ; and at the same station, Dec. 15th, both Grey and Green 
Linnets, mixed with Robins, Larks, Thrushes, and Blackbirds, 
flew about; wind strong N.E., and snow. In 1879, Sept. 9th is 
the only date given at Rhuvaal and Lamlash. 

Snow Bunting, Emheriza nivalis. — Records have been kept at 
Rhu Stoir in the north, and southward at Monach, Dhuheartach, 
Corsewall, and Point of Ayre. The earliest occurrence was at 
Dhuheartach on Sept. 19th, when one bird was seen ; wind fresh W. 



84 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

From Oct. 1st to 8th, at Ehu Stoir, about forty arrived and 
staj^ed till the latter date ; wind on day of arrival N.W. gale with 
sleet. On Oct. 1st, at Monach also, they were first seen, one at 
10 a.m. ; wind fresh S.S.W. and cloudy. At Point of Ayre from 
fifty to sixty were seen at 7.30 a.m., mixed with Thrushes and 
Blackbirds, fresh S.E. wind, clear, on Nov. 2nd and 3rd. On 
Nov. 6th, at Monach, one at 10 p.m., N.W. wind and drizzle of 
rain. On Nov. 16th a few seen at 2 p.m. during a S. to N.N.E. 
gale, and the latest record is at Corsewall, on Jan. 5th, 1881, 
when one was seen and struck the lantern at 3.30 a.m., light N.E. 
wind, haze. In 1879 most northerly station, Monach Island. 
Earliest date same as this year (1879, Monach ; 1880, Dhu- 
heartach). Latest date in 1879, Dec. 10th (Corsewall), against 
Jan. 5th, 1881 (Corsewall), in 1880. 

Note. — The unusually large and sudden immigration of Snow 
Buntings into Great Britain attracted general attention. From 
the middle of November onward they were extremely abundant, 
and they ushered in the severe winter and low temperatures of 
January, 1881. 

Sky Lark, Alaucla arvensis. — A good many returns from the 
following stations : — Ehu Stoir, Kyleakin, Dhuheartach, Skervuile, 
Eliinns of Isla}', Turnberry, Corsewell, and Bahama l.v. The 
earliest, Sept. 30th, at Corsewall, at 9 p.m., when two were seen, 
which remained till dawn on the lantern along with Golden- 
crested Wrens. The latest at Turnberry on Jan. 4th, 1881, when 
one struck at 8 p.nj., light N.E. wind with haze. In October, on 
the 1st, at Skervuile, some were seen mixed with Thrushes and 
Wrens ; winds variable and light, with haze. On the 3rd, at 
Turnberry, two struck, and one killed between 10 and 11 p.m., 
wind light E. and clear. On 12th, at Bahama l.v. a flock seen 
flying W. at 9.20 a.m., wind light N.E., with haze. On 13th 
twenty seen at Dhuheartach at 1 a.m., wind light N., cloudy. On 
Dec. 27tli a large flock was seen flying about the garden and 
shores at Monach along with young Starlings and two Blackbirds, 
at 1 p.m., wind S., fresh breeze, -clear. In 1879 the most northerly 
station was Dhuheartach. Earliest date in 1879, Sept. 19th; 
latest Dec. 6th ; but it must be remembered in this and all such 
com} arisons that in 1879 our returns' were sent in sooner than 
in 188U. 

Note. — Local migrations of large extent, brought on by heavy 



WEST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 85 

falls of snow and consequent scarcity of food, have been frequently 
noted this season. When crossing the Firth of Forth on the 
15th December I saw many large flocks of Larks, both in the 
morning and afternoon, flying steadily from N.N.W. to S.S.E. or 
N.W. to S.E. Many Larks were afterwards seen feeding near 
Leith, and notice of the fact sent to the papers by another witness. 
The line of flight, as I have said, was from N. of West to S. of 
East. I note the fact as having significance, even in a local 
migration, at this locality. 

EocK Pigeon. — July 10th, sixteen Kock Pigeons at Island 
Ghlais, flying S., 8 j).m., light N., haze and showers, refers 
probably to a local migration. At Skerry vore two "wild 
pigeons" (Rock Doves?) seen during calm hazy weather on 
June 24th. 

Lapwing, Vanellus cristatus. — At Rhuvaal, Lochindaul, and 
Portpatrick. Aug. 4th, at Lochindaul, large flocks seen all through 
the month after this date : resident. Sej^t. 1st, two killed at 
Rhuvaal, 11 p.m., strong S., haze. Sept. 9th, flocks flying S. at 
9 a.m. at Portpatrick ; wind S.E., hazy. Sept. 15th, Lochindaul, 
flocks all day; strong N. wind, clear. One at Monach on Dec. 
27th, wind S., flying S. More northerly in 1879, viz., Rhu Stoir 
and southwards. Earliest date Aug. 20th ; latest Dec. 11th. 

Note. — In Ireland Lapwings began to assemble on the shores 
by July 22nd, as observed by Mr. Warren. 

Golden Plover, Charadrius pluvialis. — Only two records this 
year from Island Ghlais and Point of Ayre : Dec. 3rd, twenty to 
thirty at 9 a.m. flying S.W., light airs, showers, at the former ; 
Jan. 12th, 1881, at the latter, a flock flying E., wind strong E., 
clear. Two or three flocks were seen upon Monach on Dec. 27th, 
at 1 p.m., flying along to shore, wind S., fresh breeze. A con- 
siderable movement appears to have been observed at Monach on 
this date. In 1879 three stations, most northerly being Skerry- 
vore. Earliest date July 27th, at Portpatrick ; latest on Oct. 18th, 
at Skerrj^vore. 

Ringed Plover. — On Aug. 13th twelve "Dotterels" arrived 
upon Dhuheartach. These remain on the rock all winter, unless 
driven ofl' by severe weather. 

Heron. — Two Herons seen at 2 p.m. at Rhu Stoir, N.W. gale, 
snow showers. At Monach four Herons rested on the shore on 
Oct. 28th, about 2 o'clock, wind strong N.E., with snow showers ; 



86 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

they had left by next day. Common and of daily occurrence at 
Kyleakin. 

Curlew, Xumenius arquatus. — Of this species we have many 
records, and it does not seem easy to distinguish between migra- 
tion data and residence. However, I give the leading points for 
further comparison. They occurred, or are recorded, at Cape 
Wrath, and thence south at Island Ghlais, Monach, Kyleakin, 
Skerry vore, Dhuheartach, Ehuvaal, Skervuile, Lochindaul, Port- 
patrick. Point of Ayre, and Bahama l.v. They seemed to fly in 
all directions, indicating to a great extent only local migration. 
From April and May, on through June and July, and all the 
autumn months they occur rather distinctly as resident, or as 
passing flocks, and it seems almost impossible to separate the 
movements in the end of summer which should be assigned as 
part of the spring migration from those in the beginning of 
autumn which more rightly belong to the autumnal migration. 
As will be seen, however, I have attempted to do so, assigning 
all June records to the former and July records to the latter. 
The earliest record, then, in autumn stands as July 15th, when 
forty were seen flying W. at 4.20 p.m. at Island Ghlais, wind 
light N., clear. The latest recorded are on Dec. 25th, 26th and 
27th at Ehu Stoir, flying south ; winds N. or light and variable 
with showers. The general courses pursued were southerly or 
from N.W. to S.E., or from N.E. to S.W., some flying direct W., 
however, and others direct S. ; but at Portpatrick, on Aug. 19th 
and 23rd, flocks were seen flying north and also south, indicating 
a local migration. On Aug. 19th the wind was light S., haze, 
and on 23rd light E., clear. Numbers passed Dhuheartach 
between Aug. 12th and 17th, all going in southerly directions, 
from S. to S.W. and S.E. On Monach they were unusually 
abundant this year all September, and more than a dozen were 
shot. '' Bushes," so far as such data are of value, appear to 
have taken place in August, 12th to 17tli, or even later, — say to 
23rd, — and locally, at Lochindaul, on Aug. 4th and 5th, and in 
September, as 10th and 25th, -at Dhuheartach, and "unusually 
abundant all September on Monach." In November, on the 3rd, 
at Bahama l.v., Curlews were flying round the vessel all night. 
On Aug. 15th four seen circling round Dhuheartach in calm, 
clear weather, and on the 18th two seen flying south in light W. 
wind and haze. On Nov. 2nd, at Douglas Head, one was killed 



WEST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 87 

on lantern at 10.30 p.m., wing strong S:E. and haze. On 
Nov. 6th one " Sandpiper" was killed at lantern at Island Ghlais 
in a fresh W. breeze. In 1879 most northerly station was Island 
Ghlais ; this year much more general. Earliest date in 1879, 
Aug. 3rd; latest Nov. 20th. 

Snipe. — I have returns only from three stations, Island 
Ghlais, Kyleakin and Douglas Head. The earliest at Kyleakin, 
Oct. 11th, when two appeared in light E. wind and rain; at the 
same station, Nov. 16th, one was killed on lantern at 2 a.m., in 
light S. wind and haze. At Douglas Head, Nov. 18th, one killed 
at midnight in snow, N.E. breeze. At Island Ghlais, Nov. 27th, 
one was killed during a W. gale and haze and rain. 

Woodcock, Scolopax rusticola. — Commencing in the north we 
have records of occasional birds at Cape Wrath, Khu Stoir, 
Island Ghlais, Kyleakin, Ardnamurchan, Lismore, and Point of 
Ayre. The earliest occurrence is noted at Island Ghlais, Sept. 
23rd, seen half a mile from lighthouse. Then we have occurrence 
at Point of Ayre, where one was killed at the lantern on nights of 
Nov. 2nd and 3rd, at 7 o'clock, light S.E. wind, very foggy. At 
Lismore, Nov. 20th, one seen at 11 a.m., light N.W. wind, clear. 
The rush appeared most conspicuous from Dec. 10th, when 
one was killed at Ardnamurchan, at 5.30 a.m., in strong W. 
wind, with thick rain; at Kyleakin, Dec. 11th, when two were 
seen at 2.30 p.m., moderate N.E. wind, snow lying on the ground ; 
and at Khu Stoir, Dec. 25th, 26th and 27th ; on 25th, three, flying 
south, light N. wind, snow ; 26tli, one, variable, and light 
showers of snow; 27th, two, light, variable and clear; lastly, 
at Ehu Stoir, Jan. 12th, two, light S.E. wind, clear. 

Note. — Northernmost Station, Island Ghlais, 1879. Earliest 
record, Oct. 11th (Rhinns of Islay), 1879; latest record, Dec. 
12th, 1879. So long ago as the date of the "Lays of the Deer 
Forest," 1848, numbers of Woodcock are recorded as settling 
about the lamps of the northern lighthouses, and evidence is 
given from Cape Wrath (loc. cit., ' Notes,' vol. ii., p. 262). 

Wild Goose. — At Portpatrick, Aug. 6th, one was seen flying 
S.E., in light E. breeze; at the same station, Jan. 13th, ten 
were observed flying S., with a strong N. breeze. At Point of 
Ayre, Jan. 11th, about twenty were seen flying S., with light 
N.E. breeze. At Monach, Nov. 30th, eight were seen at 8 p.m., 
flying westward, and settled on some rocks off the island, wind 



88 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

S.E., fresh, rain; and Jan. 9th, 1881, fifteen at 9 a.m. flymg 
northwards, wind S., light, clear. At Douglas Head, Dec. 17th, 
eight Geese were seen flying from E. to W. at 12 a.m., calm, 
clear. At Butt of Lewis, Jan. 6th, six Wild Geese at 9 a.m., light 
S.W. wind, clear ; came to the village about a mile off, stopped 
two days; left, going S. At Island Ghlais, Jan. 4th, fifty Wild 
Geese flying S., 1 p.m. ; wind N., fresh, clear. At Khuvaal, 
Dec. 12th, six dozen seen, after stormy weather, in light S.W. 
breeze. 

Note. — On Jan. 29th, 1880, four dozen, old and j'oung, 
resident on Islay, were by Feb. 15th, 1880, reduced to about two 
dozen. It is recorded in the Wernerian Societies Memoirs, in 
a report from the light-keeper at Lismore lighthouse (which 
report was not published in full), that most birds of a flock of 
Brent Geese were killed against the building, and that one bird 
passed through quarter-inch glass "like a shot" (Mem. Wern. 
Soc, read Jan. 24th, 1835). 

Swan, Cygnus. — At Rhu Stoir, Dec. 25th, 2 p.m., flying S.E., 
light N. wind, snow storm. (At Loch Inver, Jan. 1st, 1881, two 
seen at a loch there.) At Butt of Lewis, Jan. 16th, two, stayed 
four days at a village four miles off and left on 20th or 21st, 
flying S. ; wind N.E., sleet. 

Ducks, Anatidce. — At Monach, Skerryvore and Dhuheartach. 
At Dhuheartach, Oct. 12th, nineteen Eiders — sixteen males and 
three females, noon, fresh N. wind, clear ; engaged in fishing. At 
Monach, Oct. 27th, two flocks of Eiders, male and female, 3 p.m., 
wind N., cloudy; "first arrival here from breeding-grounds." 
At Dhuheartach, Oct. 28th, forty fishing round, light N.E.wind; 
Oct. 29th, the same flock. These remain all the season, usually 
arriving about Oct. 12th, but they do not land here; later in 
arrival this year. 

Great Northern Diver. — At Monach, May 25th, two — male 
and female — Great Northern Divers seen, wind S.W., fresh, 
clear. These birds are seen at intervals all through the year, 
three being the largest number Mr. Youngclause has seen at one 
time ; he has shot three during the last five years. 

Red-throated Diver. — At Monach, May 22nd, twelve were 
seen feeding in pairs along the shore ; wind N.W., fresh, 
showers. 

Rock Birds, Natatores, — Razorbills, Guillemots, Puffins. In 



WEST COAST OF ENGLAND. 89 

speaking of these I believe the simplest way will be to take the 
spring and autumn migration together, and I here simply write 
down the results as they appear in the schedules. Cape Wrath, 
April 20th, about 1000 Eazorbills, 2000 Puffins, and 2000 
Guillemots arrived to breed; wind S., showers. Aug. 29th, about 
2000 Eazorbills, 4000 Puffins, and 4000 Guillemots left; wind 
S.E., clear. Or in other words, about twice as many left in 
autumn as came in spring. " These birds have building cliffs 
about three miles east of the Cape. The time of the day they 
come is not known, nor the directions in which they come and go. 
They come in one night, and go in one night." At Island Ghlais, 
July 10th, about ninety Puffins, 4 p.m., flying S., haze, doubtless 
a local migration for food; July 11th, about 200 Puffins, 1 p.m., 
wind N., flying S.W., clear; July 22nd, numbers feeding on 
herring-soil in shore ; Aug. 9th, numbers feeding on herring-soil 
in shore. At Ushenish, May 30th, numbers passing; local 
migration, strong S. wind. At Kyleakin, May 10th, numbers of 
Guillemots passing E. all day; strong E.N.E. wind. At Sker- 
vuile, July 21st to 27th, Marrots seen. Those seen at Island 
Ghlais are almost undoubtedly bred at the Shiant Isles (see 
former Eeport, 1879). 

Note, — I have no return this year from Dimnet Head, owing 
to the absence of Mr. Geo. Maclachlan, the new keeper not 
having sent me one, which I much regret. 

Gulls.— At Cape Wrath, April 12th, 300 " Sea Gulls" arrived 
here for breeding on the cliffs below the lighthouse, between 
7 a.m. and 8 a.m., wind E., clear; July 12th, from 300 to 800 
Sea Gulls leave and passed to W., between 3 a.m. and 10 p.m., 
wind E., haze and rain; April 20th, 200 Kittiwakes arrived; 
Aug. 29th, 600 Kittiwakes left, wind S.E., clear. At Island 
Ghlais, July 22nd, 500 to 600 Gulls and Kittiwakes, Puffins, &c., 
feeding, 10 a.m. to 8 p.m. ; wind S., light, clear; probably from 
Shiant Isles. (See Mr. Anderson's notes on Gulls in mid- 
Atlantic, under Thrush, antea p. 80). At Sound of Mull, Aug. 13th, 
200 Kittiwakes, 3 p.m. to 6 p.m., flying N.W. in flocks of twenty 
to thirty ; light W. wind, clear. At Ehuvaal, March 1st, about 
four dozen, 10 a.m., S.W. wind to gale, rain and sleet ; May 1st, 
about one dozen, 9 a.m., S.W. wind, clear ; Oct. 13th, twelve, 
flying S., 7 a.m., variable, light, haze; Nov. 1st, Gulls (and 
Curlews), 9 a.m., W. wind, clear. At Skervuile, June 8th, one 

N 



90 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

Black-headed Gull, 9 am., N.W. wind, light breeze, rain, " not 
often seen here;" July 17th, "Boatswain Bu-d," 10 p.m., first 
seen, also Kittiwakes ; July 21st to 27th, " Boatswain Gulls " 
seen ; Aug. 2nd, great numbers of ditto seen. At Corsewall, 
Nov. 1st, one Kittiwake seen, 9.45 p.m. ; fresh E. breeze. At 
Stornowav, July 21st, a flock, apparently migrating, fl3'ing N., 
9 p.m., light N.E. wind. 

Terns. — At Monach, Aug. loth to 20th, great flocks were 
congregating previous to departure ; winds light, clear ; and by 
2oth all were gone, except a few detained by late young ones 
(see spring migration, under Tern). They are also reported to 
have left the neighbourhood of Stornoway lighthouse by Aug. 
15th. On Aug. 26th, sixteen *' Sea Swallows" arrived at 
Bahama light-vessel, at 2.20 p.m., in hazy weather; wind light 
S.E. by E. 

Gannet, Suhi hassana. — In the same way I give the data as 
shown in the schedules. At Cape Wrath, April 14th, 800 to 900 
flying E., for breeding at Souliskerry, from 7 a.m. to 8 p.m. ; 
wind E., clear. At Douglas Head, April 18th, one, light N.E. 
wind, clear ; July 14th to Aug. 28th, 60 to 900 daily, flying W., 
7 a.m. to 9 p.m. Xote. — I am informed by Mr. Gray that Mr. 
Anderson traced the Gannet as far south as the latitude of South 
Spain, where one da}^ the ship passed through acres of them ; 
they seemed dead beat, as if after a toilsome flight during a 
succession of autumn gales. At Ehu Stoir, July 1st to Aug. 31st, 
large flocks going N. daily along the coast, largest numbers 
about end of July ; generally passing between 7 and 9 p.m. ; none 
seen going south. At Butt of Lewis, April 13th, three Solan Geese 
seen, 9 a.m., the first seen; May 20th to Sept. 15th, increased daily 
till May 20th, and then on till middle of September, it would be 
impossible to count them from dawn till dusk : they passed in 
long strings of fifty to sixty in a flock at not more than a quarter 
of hour's interval between the flocks ; they all flew west. A 
number (about one-fifth of the whole) fly east, and take 
no notice of the others in theii* flight ; these are single birds : 
not one seen after Oct. 15th. At Island Ghlais, July 12th, 150 
Solan Geese "^jiug S. and N.," 7 a.m. to 8 p.m., light airs, W., 
clear; July 13th, 200 '' flying S. and N.," 7 a.m. to 7 p.m., fresh 
X. wind; July 15th to 31st, 1600 to 2000 flying both X. and S., 



WEST COAST OF ENGLAND. 91 

variable ; daily average about 100. {Note, — The expression 
" flying S. and N." probabl}^ means /ro;;i S. to X.) At Skervuile, 
March 1st, at 8 a.m., S.W. gale, rain and sleet ; Oct. 26th, last seen 
10 a.m., fresh N.E. wind, clear. At Lochindaul, May 14th, one 
seen fishing, wind E., clear, dry. 

Cormorants. — At Cape Wrath, April 16th, thirty " Scarts " 
arrived, 10 a.m., E. wind, showers. At Stornoway, Sept. 14th, 
seven flj^ing S.W. at noon, light S.W. wind, clear ; Sept. 21st, 
flock of ditto at 2 p.m., light W. wind, flying S.W., raining; 
Oct. 26th, flock of ditto flying W., 11 a.m., N. gale, snow; 
Dec. 24th, flock of ditto flying S.E., N. wind, fresh, snow. The 
above probably refer to local migrations. 

Unidentified. — At Portpatrick, between Oct. 7th and 28th, a 
migration appears to have gone on at intervals of small birds : 
thus on the 7th "flocks of small birds," at 7 a.m., strong N.E. 
breeze, clear, flying S.W. ; the same on the 14th, flying S.W., in 
light easterly wind, and clear ; the same on the 15th, flying W., 
in light S. winds, clear; the same on the 28th, light N.E. wind, 
hazy, direction and flight not noted. Again, flocks of small 
birds on Dec. 25th, at the same station, flying E., were observed, 
in strong N. breeze ; and flocks flew^ round all day on 26th, in 
light E. wind, and clear. In August, on the 25th, at 5.45 p.m., 
fifty-two (species unknown) seen flying S.S.W., at Bahama l.v., 
light E. by S. wind. 

General Remarks. 

In our general remarks, in 1879, we took notice of the 
scarcity of birds at many important stations, such as the Butt of 
Lewis, Monach Island, &c. This season shows a considerable 
increase upon last year's returns, and the horizontal lines of 
migration — or rays of the fan — seem to have spread out wider 
and reached farther north in 1880 than in 1879 ; and this 
increase of observations on the west coast, be it noted, is 
irrespective, apparently, of the scarcity upon our Scottish east 
coast. We also receive accounts of immense numbers of birds 
being seen this season in mid-Atlantic, the dates of their 
appearance there agreeing very accurately with dates of ob- 
servations at the land stations. In the 1879 migration the 
scarcity was accounted for by the j)i'evalence of N.W. winds 



92 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

deflecting the lines, and passing down iq)on the tight shoulders (so 
to speak) of the passing hirds.* 

This year the prevaiHng winds and gales were from east and 
north-east, and while these winds do not appear to have 
compressed the horizontal lines so mueJi as the north-westerly did 
in 1879 the birds appear to have passed at greater elevations, 
and been borne away in the gales far out to sea. The migration 
does not appear to have come in such great throbs or rushes in 
1880 as in 1879, but to have been more dispersed and more 
regular ; this, no doubt, is a natural consequence of the waves 
being more spread out in 1880 than in 1879. The great easterly 
gales continuing for weeks together over the Atlantic and North 
of Europe, so disastrous to our shipping, undoubtedly carried 
many migrants far to the westward, and the mortality amongst 
them must have been very great indeed, if we judge from the few 
records that have reached us from sea-going vessels. These 
easterly gales also have, no doubt, affected the direction of the 
migration to a considerable extent, and indications of its agency 
may be found in the occurrence on our shores of certain 
wanderers from foreign lands, such as the Esquimaux Curlew, 
on September 21st, in Kincardineshire {vide Zool., 1880, p. 485) ; 
a Red-legged Hobby, on September '20th ; a Turtle Dove in 
Kincardineshire ; and Great Snipes, Great Grey Shrikes, t &c., 
about the same dates {loc. cit.). These gales may be said to have 
continued almost without cessation during the whole migrating 
season, all through September, October, November, and De- 
cember. In November a new bird to our British list occurred, — 
the Desert Wheatear, Saxieola deserti, Euppell, — as will be found 
duly recorded by Mr. John James Dalgleish.* It was obtained 
near Alloa on November 26tli. Its native haunts are far to the 
southward and eastward, and in North Africa, Egypt, Persia 
and India. 

Mr. Cordeaux has already shown to us the apparently 
abnormal statistics on the south coast of England, birds crossing 
towards England and flying north-west all through the migratory 



* Even the stroug-winged Wild Geese and Swans are observed when 
flying well up in the wind to drift to one side a little, having the appearance 
of flying left-shoulder first instead of head first. 

f Unusually abundant in Heligoland. 

; Proc. Ryl. Phyl. Soc. Edin., 1880-81, vol. vi., p. 64. 



WEST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 93 

season between August 16th and December. I am inclined to 
look upon these data as indications of the wide-spread waves of 
the general migration, extending both farther north and farther 
south. According to the amount of pressure at the starting-points 
[or possibly the increased area northward occujDied in a parti- 
cularly fine nesting season, as in 1880] will the wideness of the 
area be which is passed over by the migratory flocks. I think 
the rules known to apply in the dispersal and extension of range 
of species are, in some respects, applicable also to the greater and 
more extensive waves of migration. 

I could say more regarding the peculiarity of nesting sites 
being occupied year after year by the same pairs of birds, or of 
well-known sites being vacated for a few seasons, and again 
occupied ; or I might dilate upon some curious statistics of the 
continuous recurrence of foreign species at the same localities, 
or along the same line of country, but I fear to occupy space with 
theory only, until we have a larger accumulation of solid 
material. 

As regards severity of weather apart from winds, unusually 
early winter was reported from Scandinavia, it having begun 
there in October (vide ' Field,' Oct. 16th, 1880, p. 590). 

Attention should be drawn also to the admirable work being 
done on the subject of migration by Mr. J. J. Dalgleish 
(Bull. Nuttall. Orn. Club), and by Mr. Percy E. Freke 
(Sc. Proc. Kyi. Dub. Soc, vol. ii., n. s., p. 373, and vol. iii., n. s., 
separate?). These gentlemen also now propose to colour, or 
have already finished, maps showing the distribution of the 
occurrences of American birds in Europe recorded in their 
papers, which cannot fail to be of much service in oui' work. We 
would like to see not only American species mapped out in 
Europe, but rare European occurrences in Great Britain. 

Finally, in endeavouring to arrive at conclusions regarding 
the causes of migrational phenomena in 1880, we have taken 
into consideration — 1st. The value of the heights of lanterns 
above the sea, as against the colour and intensity of lights in 
1879 ; and we have taken more account of the vertical area of 
birds' flight in 1880 than in 1879. 2ndly. We have compared 
the effects of prevailing north-west winds in 1879 pressing 
laterally upon the lines of migration to those of 1880, which 
being easterly and north-easterly have had the contrary effect of 



94 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

spreading out the migration again, or at least has not deflected 
it to the same extent ; and also, the effect of causing birds to 
migrate at greater elevations, and, where the gales have been 
most severe, to bear them away above the range of vision and 
carry vast numbers out to sea, until, weary and exhausted, they 
have ceased to be able to guide themselves, and again, involun- 
tarily, lowered, to be picked up senseless and stunned on board 
the ships, or to perish in thousands in the ocean. And lastl}^ 
we have hinted at the wideness of the migratory waves depending 
upon the pressure at the starting-points, or upon the larger 
north and south area occupied in the breeding- season of 1880, 
besides some other minor details. 



95 



WEST COAST OF ENGLAND. 

^ Forms of enquiry and letters of instruction were sent to 
thirty-nine lighthouses and light-vessels on the west coast of 
England ; from twenty-nine returns have been received ; from 
five, letters mentioning the scarcity of birds. 

The following are the stations from which co-operation was 
asked, commencing with the most northerly. Eeturns have been 
received from those marked with an *, and from those marked 
with a f letters without returns : — 

110. fSt. Bees: on the Head, l.h. Fixed; visible S5 miles. Robert 

Pizey. 

111. ^i^Morecambe Bay, l.v. ; revolving red light, flash every 30 seconds. 

Fog signal, one blast every 2 minutes. Henry Clavell. 

112. vAir, L.H.; on the Point. Fixed, visible 9 miles, white, except over 

West Hoyle Bank, between the bearings of S.E. J S. and 
W. i S., where it shows red. C. H. Aveston. 

113. Menai, l.h. ; on Trwyn du Point. Fixed, red ; visible 9 miles. 

Bell in fog ; three times in quick succession every 15 
seconds. 

114. =:=Skerries, l.h.; Highest Island. Fixed, visible 16 miles. Fog 

signal, one blast every 3 minutes. J. Garrett. 

115. i^Holyhead Breakwater, l.h.; 66i feet above high water. Red; 

flashes every 7-J seconds ; visible 13 miles. Appears as a 
fixed red light at a distance of 3 or 4 miles. Bell in fog 
(three times in quick succession) every 15 seconds. Fog 
horn nearly continuous uhen mail packets 2}assing into 
harbour. Richard Prichard. 

lie. =:=North Stack, Fog Horn Station, l.h. Bell sounded during fog; 
small white light revolving in 1^ min., occasionally shown 

j 40 feet above sea and 30 yards N. of S. Stack l.h. Gun 

fired e\eYy 10 minutes during fog when mail packets approach- 
ing. John Harvey, gunner. 

IT. =:^South Stack, l.h. ; on S. Stack rock off" N.W. point of Holyhead 
Island ; revolving every minute ; visible 20 miles. W. R. 
Burgess. 

1^. -St. Judwall, L.H., 151 feet above high water, occulting, light of 
8 seconds duration, followed by eclipse of 2 seconds, white 



96 WEST COAST OF ENGLAND. 

and red ; also a fixed red light (not occulting) from a window 
16 feet below the high light. William Davies. 

119. =:-' Caernarvon Bay, l.v. ; revolving with white and red flashes at 

intervals of 20 seconds, in order of two white and one red ; 
visible 10 miles. Fog signal, one blast every "2 minutes. 
AV. Bo wen. 

120. "'Bardsey, L.H. Fixed; visible^lT miles. Fog syren one blast every 

5 minutes. Thomas Bowen. 

121. Cardigan Bay, l.v. Red; revolving every 30 seconds; visible 10 

miles going in. 

122. •Bull Point, l.h. White triple flashes. Fog signal, three blasts 

quickly every 2 minutes. George Knott, 

123. =:=South Bishop, l.h.; revolving every 20 seconds ; visible 18 miles. 

Gong in fog. John White. 

124. *Smalls, l.h. Fixed, white ; visible 17 miles. Bell sounded during 

foggy weather, and a rocket every half hour. W. Boulton. 

125. =:=Great Castle Head, l.h. (2). Fixed, white, 112 and 76 feet above 

high water. 

126. >:=Milford (Low), l.h. Fixed, red. G. Baker. 

J 27. Milford (High), l.h. Fixed, red, 48 feet above sea. 

128. =:'Caldy, l.h., S. of Island. Fixed; visible 20 miles; bright to 

seaward, red in direction of Old Castle Head and VVoolhouse 
Shoal. W. Ebben, P. K. 

129. *Helwick, l.v.; revolving every minute; visible 10 miles. Fog 

horn, blasts of 5 seconds duration at regular intervals o 
2 minutes. Thomas Cornell, mate. 

130. *Scarweather, l.v. ; revolving red, three times a minute, 38 feet above 

level of sea ; visible 10 miles. Fog syren, two blasts quickly 
every 2 minutes. Henry Jenkins. 

131. ':=Nash (Lower W.), l.h. Fixed; visible 17 miles. John Richards. 
132 -Nash (E. or high), l.h. Fixed ; visible 19 miles; red. Hy. Nicholas. 

133. Breaksea, l.v. Flashing every 15 seconds; 38 feet above sea; fixed 

red light at a lower elevation. Gong in fog. 

134. *Flatholm, l.h., S. point of Island. Fixed ; visible 18 miles. 

W. Dale, P. K. 

135. *Usk, L.H., W. side of entrance to river. Fixed; visible 11 miles; 

white and red. Amos Russell. 

136. fAvon, L.H.. E. of entrance. Fi.xed; visible 13 miles; white seaward. 

William Taylor. 

137. *Burnham, L.H. (2). Upper intermittent ; visible 15 miles. Lower, 

fixed ; visible 9 miles. William Lewis. 

138. =i'Bideford, l.h. (2). Low light visible from half-flood to half-ebb, 

14 and 11 miles. Leading lights for crossing the Bar. 
Edward Roberts. 



k 



WEST COAST OF ENGLAND. 97 

139. Lundy Fog Gun Station. Dnriug fog and thick weather, rocket 

every 10 minutes; explodes at height of 600 feet. John 
Morgan. 

140. *Lundj, L.H., i mile from S. end of Island (2), in one tower. Upper 

visible 30 miles, revolving every 2 minutes. Low light fixed, 
only visible between bearings of S. by E. and N.E. James 
Parsons. 

141. fHartland Point, l.h., 120 feet above high water; revolving, 30 

seconds, two white and one red. Fog signal, blasts of 
5 seconds duration every 2 minutes. John Griffiths. 
J 42. jTrevose Head, l.h., on N.W. extremity (2). Fixed ; visible 20 and 
17 miles. W. Bowen. 

143. *Godrevy, l.h. Flashing every 10 seconds; visible 15 miles. A 

fixed red light in same tower, 27 feet below flashing light ; 
Yisible from S. by E. to S.E. Richard Trahair. 

144. *Bishop Rock, L.H. , on S. W. Rock. Scilly. Fixed ; visible 16 miles. 

Bell in fog every 10 seconds. 

145. *Scilly, L.H., St. Agnes, on summit of Island ; revolving every half- 

minute ; visible 17 miles. E. L. Davis. 

146. *Sevenstones, l.v. White, revolving. Syren fog signal, three blasts 

quickly every 2 minutes. Daniel Norton. 

147. •Longships, l.h., on highest rock off Land's End. Fixed ; visible 

16 miles. Bell in foggy weather. William Jones. 

148. fWolfrock, l.h., 8 miles S.S.W of Land's End, 110 feet above high- 

water mark ; revolving alternate flashes of red and white ; 
visible 16 miles. In fog a bell. W. D. Crask. 

To the Elder Brethren at Trinity House our thanks are due for 
their kind permission to make use of the light stations for taking 
observations ; and to the Trinity Superintendents, Mr. Davison 
(Holyhead), Mr. Evans (Weyland), and Mr. Tregarthen (Pen- 
zance), we are obliged for willing assistance. 

The observers at the various stations are deserving of thanks 
for the pains they have taken to keep an accurate record of the 
facts coming under their notice. The reports are all interesting, 
those which show a paucity of birds equally with those that 
record the passing of many. Excluding the Anatidce, notes have 
been taken of about fifty-two different species. 



98 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 



SEPARATE REPORT ON EACH SPECIES. 

Of the Eaptores we have heard but Httle. A male Falcon (Pere- 
grme ?) was seen at Sevenstones Oct. 13th, at noon, flying S.W., 
before a moderate breeze from N.E.; at Smalls, Oct. 7th, a 
Kestrel was observed fl^^ing round the tower; in Morecambe 
Ba}^ Oct. 4th, 7.30 a.m., a Sparrowhawk flying from N.N.E., a 
gentle E.N.E. breeze, rested on board the light-vessel. At St. 
Bees a hawk or two, we are told, may be seen occasionally; 
''they build on the cliffs thereabouts." 

Owl, Otus hrachijotos. — At North Stack, Oct. 13th, an Owl, 
probably the Short-eared, was seen, at 8.55 a.m., flying S.W., 
before a mod. N.E. breeze. At Smalls, Oct 15th, a little Horned 
Owl was observed resting on the rock ; Nov. 6th, at 4 p.m., 
another on the S.E. rock. 

Fieldfare, Turdiis jnlaris. — Distinguished on one or two 
occasions ; possibly some of the notes on '' Thrush " may refer 
to this. From Bishop Eock, Oct. 13th, Fieldfares were seen 
at 10 a.m. passing W. before a mod. E. breeze. At Smalls, 
Oct. 15th, from 1 a.m. to daylight. Grey Thrushes were noticed, 
with Eedwings, Starlings, and Blackbirds ; breeze gentle to 
moderate, E.S.E. to S.E. At Ak (Eiver Dee), Nov. 7th, "large 
quantities passed at sunrise." 

Song Thrush, Turdus musicus. — Eecorded from five stations. 
At Caernarvon Bay, Oct. 1st, two were killed; hazy. At South 
Bishop, Oct. 5th, 10 p.m. to 2 a.m., a mod. N.N.E. breeze, rain 
and mist. Thrushes and Blackbirds were passing, and, of the 
former, seven killed. At Morecambe Bay, Oct. 8th, 10.20 a.m., 
one Song Thrush passed S.S.W., very tired ; a strong N.E. 
breeze. At Nash (E. or high), Oct. 13tli, one was killed; afresh 
N.N.E. breeze, with mist. At Bull Point, Oct. 14th, 3 a.m., 
overcast and misty, light air S.S.W., one female is reported as 
striking. At Caernarvon Bay, Nov. 2nd, a young Thrush and 
Lark were killed at 9.10 p.m.; gentle E.S.E. breeze, hazy. At 
Bull Point, Nov. 3rd, two struck at 2 a.m. ; fresh E. breeze, 
clear. At the same time there ap2)ears to have been a rush 
farther south. At South Bishop, Nov. 2nd, from midnight to 
morning, a fresh S.E. breeze, very misty, a very great quantity 
of Thrushes, with Blackbirds, Starlings, and Larks, of which 
many were killed; and, with breeze still S.E., but moderate, 



WEST COAST OF ENGLAND. 99 

continuous flocks of same all day flying towards N.E. ; Nov. 3rd, 
from 9 p.m. to midnight, a gentle E. breeze, rather misty, large 
quantities, with Larks, Blackbirds, and Starlings (many killed). 
At Nash (E. or high), Dec. 1st, one was killed; fresh W. breeze, 
but clear. At Godrevy, Jan. 14th, 12 to 4 p.m.. Thrushes were 
seen, with Lapwings and Starlings : this is the only instance 
recorded in afternoon, the others being at night, the weather in 
most cases misty or hazy, and the wind ranging from N.N.E. 
to S.E. 

Kedwing, Turclus iliacus. — Separately noticed at one station 
only — Smalls. Oct. 8th, 7.30 p.m., some were seen among 
Starlings and Larks, N.E. to E., misty; twenty of the birds 
killed. Oct. 9th, from midnight to 5 a.m., several, with Larks 
and Starlings ; eleven struck ; breeze mod. to strong E. to E.N.E., 
clear. Oct. 15th, from 1 a.m. to daylight, large numbers, with 
Starlings, Blackbirds, and Greenfinches. Oct. 29th, one was 
caught. Nov. 2nd, several, with Sky Larks, Starlings, and 
Blackbirds ; sixteen struck and were caught. Nov. 3rd, three 
males and five females were distinguished among Blackbirds, 
Starlings, and Larks. Nov. 5th, one male ; mod. N. breeze. 
Except the first, the instances occurred from midnight to sunrise, 
with moderate N.E., E., and S.E. breezes, and generally with 
clouds, mist, or drizzle. 

Blackbird, Turclus merula. — Eeported from ten stations. The 
earliest date is Aug. 12th, when one was seen at Scarweather at 
1 p.m., mod. S.S.E. breeze ; the latest at Skerries, Dec. 4th, 
when Blackbirds and Snipe appeared, and a few were killed. 
The one occurrence only is noted in August, and we do not again 
hear of its appearance till at Skerries, Sept. 27th, 29th, and 30th, 
when Blackbirds were seen (the two later dates in company with 
Starlings). At Caernarvon Bay, Oct. 1st, Blackbirds and 
Thrushes were seen, and two killed ; light westerly breeze, hazy. 
At S. Bishop, Oct 5th, from 10 p.m. to 2 a.m., N.N.E., rain and 
mist. Blackbirds and Thrushes struck, and seventeen Blackbirds 
were killed. At Helwick, Oct. 8th, one was killed. At Caldy, 
Oct. 10th, one male was discerned fl3'ing about the lantern ; 
a mod. E. by S. gale, squally and cloudy. At Bull Point, 
Oct. 12th, two females struck, but were not killed ; a mod. 
E. breeze, clear; and, on Oct. 14th, one female. At S. Bishop, 
Oct. 13th^ nine were killed, with five Larks. At Helwick, 



100 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

Oct. 14th, one and a Linnet. At. Smalls, Oct. Ie5th, numbers 
struck, with Starlings, Thrushes, and Finches ; and, at Godrevy, 
two, with two Starlings and one Thrush, not killed. At Helwick, 
Nov. 2nd, several killed, with Larks and Starlings ; and, from 
midnight to morning at S. Bishop, a fresh S.E. breeze and very 
misty, a very great quantity of Blackbirds, Larks, etc. (see Song 
Thrush). At Godrevy, Nov. 3rd, one struck, not killed. At 
Smalls, Nov. 2nd, two were seen at midnight ; 3rd and 5th six 
(two males and four females), and one female. At Nash 
(E. or high), Dec. 1st, one was killed. At Skerries, Dec. 4th, a 
few. The time of the occurrences noticed, except of the three 
in report, which were at sunrise, was from midnight to morning, 
and they took place almost always in cloudy or misty weather, 
with generally a mod. breeze more or less easterly, viz., N.N.E., 
through E. to S.S.E. The greatest number of instances noticed 
is in October, when we have returns from seven stations, but the 
birds are only seen by ones or twos ; they seem to have appeared 
in numbers from Nov. 1st to 3rd ; in December we have only two 
instances. 

Then the Turdidce have been noticed from Morecambe Bay 
(from St. Bees we have the general remarks that an occasional 
Blackbird or Thrush is to be seen) to Godrevy. The movement 
appears to have been pretty evenly distributed, perhaps to have 
spread gradually from N. to S., and to have lasted from Aug. 12th 
to Jan. 14th, being most active from Sept. 27th to Nov. 27th, 
with a decided rush on Nov. 2nd and 3rd. The direction of 
flight is seldom given, the notices almost all referring to birds 
killed or striking. The greatest slaughter occurred at S. Bishop 
on Nov. 1st, when, of Blackbirds, Thrushes, Larks, and Starlings, 
162 were immolated, and on Nov. 3rd 172. The time when the 
occurrences were observed lies between twilight and sunrise, but 
is chiefly about midnight, the weather being generally hazy, 
misty, or overcast, with mod. breezes from E.N.E. through 
E. to S.E. In the majority of instances the birds were accom- 
panied by others of their own family, or by Starlings or Larks. 

Stonechat, Saxicola ruhicola. — At Morecambe Bay, Aug. 29th, 
4 p.m., moderate breeze E. by S., one came on board. The 
note is added that it is "very. seldom Seen here." This is the 
only occurrence noted. 

Wheatear, Saxicola cenanthe. — At Bishop Rock, Aug. 17th, 



WEST COAST OF ENGLAND. 101 

1.30 a.m., three struck the glass, light E. breeze, cloudy; 
Aug. 22nd, midnight, mod. E.S.E. breeze, cloudy and misty, 
Wheatears strike ; none killed on either occasion. 

Chifffchaff and Goldcrest, Sylvia hippolais and Regulus 
auricajnllus, — At Scarweather, July 30th, 1 p.m., a Goldcrest 
was seen. At Flatholme, Oct. 14th, a large quantity of Gold- 
crests and Chiffchaffs were seen at 9.40 a.m., gentle E. breeze, 
blue sky, but clouds and mist. Mr. Dale reports that, at this 
station, *' These little birds generally make their appearance 
about the beginning of October, and remain till about the middle 
of November. In spring again, from about March 20th to May. 
Numbers are killed by striking the lantern on dark nights." 

Titmouse, Parus cceruleus. — At Burnham, Aug. 16th, 3 p.m., 
mod. N.N.E. breeze, " a large flock of Blue Tits perched on the 
trees, &c." At Caldy, midnight, a Titmouse (species not 
identified) was seen flying about the glass. 

Wagtail, Motacilla (sp. ?) — Keturns only from Morecambe 
Bay. Aug. 26th, 6.15 a.m., one alighted on deck; 27th, 
7 a.m., one passed E., and at 8.30 a.m. one E.N.E. ; 30th 
three, and 31st six passed ; Sept. 1st two were seen, and on 4th 
six; 12th, one passed W., a gentle breeze W.S.W. ; 16th, five, 
S.E., a strong breeze from N. ; 27th, flocks, with Linnets, were 
observed during the forenoon, a light breeze S. by W., and 
several small birds killed. These occurrences all happened 
between 5 and 8.30 a.m. In almost every case the weather was 
cloudy, misty, or foggy, with gentle breezes, varying, but mostly 
E.S.E. or easterly. The direction of flight S.E. and E.S.E. 

Sky Lark and Meadow Pipit, Alatida arvensis and Anthus 
jn-atensis, — On two occasions the Meadow Pipit is distinguished ; 
possibly some of the notes on "Larks" may refer to it. From 
Morecambe Bay, Sept. 8th, 6 a.m., four Titlarks are reported 
flying S.W., a gentle breeze E.N.E. From Smalls, Nov. 3rd, 
mod. E. breeze, one was seen in company with Blackbirds and 
Kedwings. Of Larks, the earliest aj^pearance noted is Aug. 27th, 
when, at Morecambe Bay, seven passed flying S. by E., light 
E.S.E. breeze; Sept. 1st, 5.30 p.m., about thirty passed Nash, 
flying S., a gentle W.N.W. breeze; and on 3rd, at noon, about 
twenty passed N., light E.S.E. breeze. These occurrences are 
noticed from both stations. At Caernarvon, Sept. 4th, one was 
killed. At Lundy, Sept. 9th, a number, with Chaffinches, were 



102 REPORT ON THE MIGRARION OF BIRDS. 

seen, fresh E.S.E. breeze, rain and squally; these were noticed 
from both stations. At Scarweather, same day, two were seen. 
At Morecambe Bay, a dozen passed flying S. At Skerries, Sept. 
23rd, 9.30 to 11 p.m., many Larks and Linnets were striking, but 
none killed. At Scarweather, Sept. 24th, mod. W. breeze, a 
large number of Larks. From the two stations at Nash, Sept. 
25th, a large flock of Sky Larks were observed passing N.E. 
At Skerries, Sept. 26th and 27th, Larks were seen. At Caer- 
narvon, Sept. 29th, 9.15 a.m., a flock passed S.E. At Caldy, 
same day, 10 p.m., two male Sky Larks and a White Gull were 
flying about the lantern, light S.E. breeze, fog. At South Bishop, 
Sept. 30th, four larks were killed, fog. Through September they 
appear, as the month advanced, to have been noticed in greater 
numbers and farther south. The appearances are nearly all in 
the daytime ; breezes light or gentle, varying from W. through 
S. to E. Direction of flight, when noticed, towards S. or S.E., 
except at Nash, where, on Sept. 3rd, some passed N., and on 
25th some N.E. At Godrevy, Oct. 4th, 1 to 2 a.m., mod. E.N.E. 
breeze, a Lark, Petrel, and two foreign Wrens were seen, and 
three birds killed. At Nash, Oct. 5th, 9 a.m. to 3 p.m., continuous 
flocks passed S.E., with mod. E.N.E. breeze, and rain ; the same 
direction followed, though wind veered round to W.S.W. At 
Helwick, Oct. 8th, 2 a.m., one was killed, strong E.S.E. 
breeze, rain and lightning. At Smalls, same date, 7.30 p.m. to 
midnight, continuous flocks of Sky Larks, Redwings and Starlings, 
and about twenty struck; 9th, midnight to 5 a.m.. Sky Larks 
and Eedwings, eleven struck, mod. to strong E. to E.N.E. breeze, 
clear. At Nash, Oct. 10th, a flock of Sky Larks was observed 
from both stations flying N.W., strong N.E; breeze; 13th, with 
mod. E.N.E. breeze, a like flock going E. At South Bishop, 
Oct. 13th, 1 to 4 a.m., light S.E. air, clouds and mist, five Larks 
and nine Blackbirds met their fate. At Smalls, Oct. 12th, about 
thirty struck the roof (with Starlings) from 1 a.m. to daylight ; 
and at Skerries, at intervals during same day, small flocks were 
seen passing towards the land. At Morecambe Bay, same day, 
about 10.20 a.m., a flock of Larks passed S.S.W. At Helwick, 
Oct. 15th, 4.30 a.m., several Larks and Starlings were seen. At 
Morecambe Bay, Oct. IGth, 2.30 p.m., a flock passed E.N.E. At 
Caernarvon Bay, Oct. 19th, 1 to 4 p.m., continuous flocks passed 
E.S.E., fresh E. by N. breeze. At Helwick, Oct. 21st, gentle 



WEST COAST OF ENGLAND. l08 

N.E. breeze, a flock from S.W. to N.E. At Caernarvon, Oct. 
•22nd, 11 a.m. to 4 p.m., mod. E. gale, with haze, flocks of Larks 
and Starlings passed S.E. ; 24th, 9 a.m. to 4 p.m., similar flocks 
passed S.S.E., with a mod. N.N.W. breeze. At Helwick, Oct. 
30th, 11 a.m., light N.N.E. breeze, " several hen Larks " passed 
from S.W. to N.E. At South Stack, same day, 7 a.m. to noon, 
fresh N.W. breeze, clear, continuous flocks (with Starlings, 
Linnets, and Chaf&nches) passed to N.W. Throughout October 
the movement appears to have been active and pretty general 
along the coast ; the time of occurrence in the greater number of 
cases between 9 a.m. and 4 p.m. ; the direction of flight, when 
recorded, generally easterly ; in most instances mist, rain and 
fog, with — generally — moderate E.N.E. to E. breezes. At 
Morecambe Bay, Nov. 1st, five passed S.E., mod. N.N.E. breeze; 
2nd, three in same direction, mod. S.E. breeze. At South 
Bishop, from midnight to the morning of 2nd, fresh S.E. breeze, 
very misty, " a very great quantity of Larks, Thrushes," &c., and 
" continuous flocks " all day, flying towards N.W. ; 3rd, 9 i).m. to 
midnight, enormous quantities, &c. (see " Song Thrush.") At 
Caernarvon, Nov. 2nd, 9.10 p.m., a young Lark was killed, gentle 
E.S.E. breeze, hazy; 3rd, 1 to 4 a.m., still hazy, two Larks 
killed. At Helwick, Nov. 2nd, 1 p.m., fresh S.E. breeze, *' a flock 
of hen Larks" passed to N.E., and at 8 p.m., several more, of 
which some were slain ; overcast and misty. At Nash (W. or 
low), Nov. 14th, noon, flights of Sky Larks and Starlings passed 
overhead, strong W.S.W. breeze, clouds and mist. These are 
all the instances reported in November ; most of them occurred 
at night, and, being of birds striking, the direction of flight is not 
recorded; the winds generally moderate and from E. to S.E.; 
on every occasion with mist, haze, or fog. After Nov. 14th we 
have no record till Dec. 3rd, when flocks of Larks passed Skerries 
at midnight, gentle S. breeze, misty. At Scarweather, Dec. 8th, 
11 p.m., two Larks, mod. W.N.W. breeze, gloomy and misty. 
At Lundy, same day, S.W. breeze, a great number of Sky Larks 
were seen, and Mr. Parsons adds, "these are seen daily," but for 
how long is not stated. At Caernarvon l.v., Dec. 13th, 2 to 5 
a.m., four young Larks were killed, mod. N. by W. breeze, 
drizzling rain. At Milford, Jan. 11th, a quantity of Larks, 
Plovers, and Starlings arrived and remained all day. At South 
Stack, Jan. 12th, strong N.E. breeze and passing showers of snow, 



104 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

continuous flocks of Larks and Starlings passed all day ; and on 
13th, a large quantity was on the island all day. This is the 
latest instance recorded. In all, we have returns from fifteen 
stations, of which all but Milford and the two at Nash are off the 
coast. The direction of flight, judging from the instances given, 
seems to have been chiefly towards S.E. and S. (this would be 
towards the mainland). The chief movement seems to have been 
from Sept. 9th to Nov. 3rd, and increasing towards November. 
In the majority of cases, with the breeze moderate, from E. to S.E. 
and S. ; in some from N. and N.E. to E. ; generally with mist 
or gloom. 

Yellowhammer, Emheriza citrinella. — At Morecambe Bay, 
Oct. 12, five passed about midnight, flying S.S.W., gentle breeze 
fromN. to N.E. by E. 

Chaffinch, Fringilla coelehs. — At Lundy, Sept. 9th, 1 p.m., a 
great number, with Sky Larks, fi-esh E.S.E. breeze, rain. At 
Smalls, Oct. 25th, mod. W. breeze, till midnight, some struck 
and fell overboard ; three and a Starling caught. At South 
Stack, Oct. 30th, fresh N.W. breeze, flocks, with Starlings, 
Larks and Linnets, passed flying N.W. 

Mountain Sparrow, Passer montanus. — This species is 
distinguished only in the returns fi*om North Stack. Sept. 24th, 
8.40 a.m., a flock passed S.W. ; 26th, 2.30 p.m., with mod. S.W. 
breeze, a flock passed N.W. ; Oct. 12th, 8.40 a.m., two flocks 
flying N.E.; 15th, 7.30 a.m., six passed S.W., mod. S. breeze ; 
Dec. 24th, 3.10 p.m., fresh N.W. breeze, thirty passed E. ; Jan. 
12th, 2.30 p.m., a flock passed S.W., before a strong N.E. breeze, 
with snow. 

Common Sparrow, Passer domesticus. — At Nash, Sept. 27th, 
6 a.m., a flight passed N.N.W. (observed from both stations), 
light N.E. breeze. At North Stack, Dec. 3rd, 11 a.m., a flock of 
Sparrows was seen flying N.E., against a mod. S.W. breeze. 

Greenfinch, Coccothraiistes Moris. — At Smalls, Oct. 15th, 
1 a.m. to daylight, many struck the roof, along with Starlings, 
Blackbirds, &c., mod. E.S.E. to' S.E. breeze, misty; Nov. 5th, 
before sunrise, mod. W. breeze, cloudy but clear horizon, two 
males and one female were caught alive, together with Thrush, 
Blackbird and Starling. 

Linnet, lAnota cannabina. — From the two stations at Lundy 
we learn that, from 8th Sept., a great many Linnets "mixed " have 



WEST COAST OF ENGLAND. 105 

been seen daily, and on Oct. 30th have left the island. The 
earliest recorded is Sept. 1st, when at Skerries, 9 p.m. to 3 a.m., 
fresh S.W. breeze, clear, small flocks appeared with Finches, 
many strike, and a few are killed; 23rd, 9.30 to 11 p.m., mod. 
S.W. breeze, clear after fog, small flocks with Larks, many 
strike, but none are killed. At Morecambe Bay, Sept. 17th, 
7 a..m, four Grey Linnets pass S.E., mod. N.W. by W. breeze; 
21st, noon, nine going N., light S. by W. breeze, misty ; and on 
27th, during the forenoon, fog, flocks of Linnets and Wagtails 
pass, and several small birds are killed. At Caldy, Sept. 24th, 
some Linnets were seen. At Smalls, Oct. 29th, one was caught 
with a Kedwing, fresh N.E. breeze, cloudy but clear horizon. At 
South Stack, Oct. 30th, 7 a.m. to noon, fresh N.W. breeze, 
Linnets, Larks, Starlings, and Chaffinches passed in flocks to 
N.W. From Godrevy, we hear from Mr. Trahair that " several 
flocks of Green and Eed Linnets come on the island from 
September to latter part of December." 

Stakling, Sturnus vidgaris. — We have more notices of this 
bird than of any other. Its occurrence seems to have been 
general and frequent. Twenty-two stations have reported on it, 
besides St. Bees, whence Mr. Pizey writes, **An occasional 
Starling or Lark may be sometimes seen on the lantern- 
window"; and Trevose Head, where, Mr. Bowen states, 
** Starlings and Crows can be observed all the year; they build 
their nests about the cliffs." The earliest date given is July 
24th, where, at Scarweather, 11 a.m., a flock was observed, clear, 
with breeze from E.N.E. This, however, is the only occurrence 
noticed till Aug. 29th, when, at Sevenstones, a large flock passed 
S.W. at 5.20 a.m., fog, light N.N.E. air. The next date is Sept. 
lOth, when, at Nash, a large flock passed overhead at 6 p.m., 
fresh S.W. breeze. From this date several instances occur in 
the Bristol Channel, but it is Sept. 28th before we hear from a 
station as far north as Skerries. The occurrences then become 
frequent and general along the coast, increasing to Nov. 3rd, 
after which they gradually decrease in numbers and frequency 
till Jan. 14th, when, at Godrevy, a great number, in company 
with. Lapwings, Thrushes, &c., were seen from noon to 4 p.m., 
fresh E.S.E. breeze, and clear horizon. The greatest number of 
individuals are recorded from Oct. 16th to 21st, and again Oct. 
29th to Nov. 3rd ; we have the greatest number of occurrences 

p 



lOG REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

noted in November, and especially from 1st to 3rd. In Septem- 
ber we have returns from six stations, Flatholm to Skerries. 
The flight when noticed being (except in one instance) in 
daj'light — mostly from sunrise to about 11 a.m. Direction of 
flight scarcely ever noticed. Wind various, generally light, and 
never exceeding a fresh breeze ; weather in some cases clear, but 
more generally overcast to misty. The next date, after 10th, is 
Sept. 17th, when, at Flatholm, fresh W.N.W. breeze, a small 
flight appeared and remained on the island till 19th; 22nd, from 
both stations at Nash, a flock of young Starlings is reported as 
flying N.E., fresh W. breeze, misty; 23rd, a flock of Starlings, 
mixed, was seen at North Stack, light N.W. breeze, drizzly rain; 
24tli, continuous flocks were seen from Flatholm; after this no 
further occurrence is noted in Bristol Channel till Nov. 1st. At 
Skeries, Sept. 28th, 29th, and 30th, Starlings were seen at 
sunrise, light W.S.W., S.E. and N.E. breezes. Throughout 
October we have constant notices. At Morecambe Bay, Oct. 1st, 
two flocks of young, mixed, passed S.W., light W.N.W. breeze. 
At Nash, Oct. 3rd, continuous flocks all day passed N., against a 
light N. to N.E. breeze; and at Flatholm, 3.30 p.m., mod. N. 
breeze, blue sky but cloudy, there was a small flight, and four 
old birds were killed. At Caldy, Oct. 4th, 8 a.m., strong E. by S. 
breeze, about twenty were seen (first appearance). At Lundy, 
Oct. 6tli, strong E. breeze, rain, a great number appeared and 
were seen daily till 29th, after which only one or two seen. At 
Smalls, Oct. 8th, 7.30 to midnight, fresh N.E. to E. breeze, 
misty. Starlings, Kedwings, and Sky Larks passed in continuous 
flocks (about twenty struck). At Morecambe Bay, Oct. 10th, 
one seen; 11th, one passing S.E. very tired, fresh E. 
by N. breeze. On 11th, we first hear of them so far south as 
Scilly, where Starlings and Woodcocks passed at 8.30 a.m., 
fresh E.S.E. breeze; and on 12th, at Bishop Eock, Starlings at 
10 a.m. These, however, are the only instances recorded from 
these two stations. At Smalls, Helwick, and Caldy respectively, 
during the nights of Oct. 14th, l"5th, and IGthj several struck and 
many were killed. At Caernarvon, Oct. 16th, "continuous flocks 
of Starlings and Spinxes " (?) passed during the day, gentle S.S.W. 
breeze, and hazy. At South Stack, Oct. 17th, 6.30 a.m., light 
E. breeze, a very large flock passed. At Morecambe Bay, Oct. 
21st, 5.20 p.m., gentle E.N.E. breeze, clouds but clear horizon, 



WEST COAST OF ENGLAND. 107 

two to three hundred passed W.N.W. At Caernarvon Bay, Oct. 
22nd, mod. E. gale, hazy, a flock with Larks passed S.E. ; and 
on 24th, during the day, similar flocks S.S.E. ; wind now mod. 
and from N.N.W. At Flatholm, same day, 8 a.m., gentle E.N.E. 
breeze, small flights appeared and remained till Oct. 26th, at 
7.30 a.m., when they departed S.W., fresh W.S.W. breeze, 
cloudy. At South Stack, Oct. 29th, 7 a.m., fresh N.N.E. gale, 
clear, very large flocks passed ; BOth and 31st, fresh N.W. breeze, 
continuous flocks passed to N.W. At Sevenstones, Oct. 30th, 
3.30 p.m., light E. air, clear, several flocks were seen flying to 
W. and N.E. At Nash, Nov. 1st, 9 a.m., gentle N.N.E. breeze, 
clear, a flock of Crows and Starlings passed overland. At 
Smalls, same day, from sunset to midnight, three were seen 
about the lantern. At Morecambe Bay, Nov. 2nd, 4 p.m., from 
two to three dozen passed, flying S. ; and at the same hour, at 
Helwick, a flock of male Starlings passed, flying from S.W. to 
N.E., and at 8 p.m. several were killed. At Longships, 7 p.m., 
a few fluttered against the glass; at Caldy, 10.30 p.m., one was 
noticed flying about the lantern ; at Godrevy, 11 p.m., four 
struck, several others hovering around ; and at Smalls, before 
midnight, mod. E. breeze, misty and drizzling, eight were seen 
with other birds. At South Bishop, from midnight (of 1st), when 
they first arrived, till morning, a very great quantity, with 
Thrushes, &c. ; and all day after, continuous flocks of same 
flying towards N.W. Again, on the 3rd, enormous quantities 
of Starlings came at midnight (of 2nd) and continued till 
morning, and at 6 a.m. the Starlings began to fly E. At 
Caernarvon also, Nov. 3rd, nine young Starlings were killed, 
gentle E.S.E. breeze, hazy; and at Smalls, before sunrise, 
.twenty-three female and four male Starlings, among Blackbirds 
and Thrushes, were counted ; several struck and went overboard. 
At Nash, 9 a.m., large flights passed overland, with Crows ; and 
at Godrevy, 2 a.m^., two, with Thrushes and Blackbirds, struck. 
Thus there appears to have been a decided "rush" lasting from 
,Oct. 29th, 7 a.m., to Nov. 3rd, 9 a.m. From Nov. 1st to 3rd 
alone, we hear from no less than eleven stations. It was on the 
2nd and 3rd that the slaughter, already mentioned (see " Song 
Thrush"), took place at South Bishop, and Starlings were 
numbered among the slain. On Nov. 6th, eight were killed at 
Lundy, many others striking ; and after this we have almost 



108 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

daily returns from the two stations at Nash, of flights, the 
direction, when noticed, being overland. At Helwick, Nov. 15th, 
a flock passed N.E. At Bull Point, Nov. 18th, a flock was seen 
flying E. At Godrevy, Nov. 29th, mod. S.W. breeze, clear, a 
flock flying S. Throughout December we have almost daily 
returns from Nash, of flights passing overland (on 10th and 25th 
they are noticed as passing S.) At Godrevy, Dec. 2nd, 5 to 8.30 
p.m., light S.S.W. breeze, misty, seventeen male and female, 
mixed, struck. At Caernarvon Bay, Dec. 16th, 1 to 4 a.m., 
strong W.N.W. breeze, three killed ; 27th, 9 to 11 p.m., gentle 
E. by N. breeze, two young Starlings were killed; 28th, 9 a.m. 
to 11 p.m., gentle N.N.E. breeze, misty, flocks passed, flying 
N.W. ; and on 31st, between 10 and 11 p.m., strong N.W. by N. 
breeze, misty, three were killed and fell overboard. At Lundy, 
Dec. 25tli, fresh N.N.W. breeze, clear, a great many Starlings 
came on the island during the night. At Nash, Jan. 7th, 2 a.m., 
fresh E. breeze, misty, several struck; 11th, 10 a.m., misty, 
some seen with flocks of Plovers and Peewits. At Milford (Low), 
same day, a quantity with Plovers and Larks arrived, and 
remained all day. At South Stack, Jan. 12th, fresh N.E. breeze, 
with passing showers of snow, a large quantity of Starlings and 
Larks, old and young, passing all day ; 13th, on the islands all 
day. At Godrevy, Jan. 14th, noon to 4 p.m., fresh E.S.E. 
breeze, clear, a great number with Thrushes and Lapwings were 
seen. 

Chough, Hooded Crow and Rook, Fregilus graculus, Corvus 
comix and Corvus frugilegus. — From Caldy Mr. Ebben reports, 
** The Chough breeds upon the island, and never goes away." 
We do not hear of it from any other station. The Hooded Crow 
is only once distinguished, but may perhaps be referred to under 
the general style of " Crow," the Rook being sometimes 
distinguished by that of '' Black Crow." At S. Stack, Oct. 22nd, 
11.30 a.m., fresh E. breeze, clear, a flock passing to N.W. Of 
the Rook or, indeed, of Crowds generally, the first appearance 
noted is Sept. 9th, when "Black Crows" were seen at Caldy, 
9 a.m., a strong breeze E. by S., misty. At N. Stack, Sept. 12th, 
6 p.m., three Black Crows flying N.E., before a mod. S.W. 
breeze; 19th, 5.20 p.m., four passed S.E., a fresh N.W. breeze; 
24th, 9 a.m., ninety were seen flying E., before a strong W. 
breeze. From this station we have no fui'ther record till Dec. 



WEST COAST OF ENGLAND. 109 

20th. At Nash, Sept. 10th, 3 p.m., about 100 Books passed N. ; 
13th, from the low station, hundreds were seen flying overland ; 
22nd, 9 a.m., a flight of young Rooks, Starlings and Jackdaws 
flying N.E., fresh W. breeze ; 24th, at noon, a flock passing S.E. ; 
30th, 3 p.m., from both stations we hear of a flight passing N.E. ; 
Oct. 2nd, 2 p.m., fresh N. breeze, misty, large flock of Crows 
pass S.W. ; the only instance reported from Nash for October. 
At Morecambe Bay, Oct. 3rd, 5.30 p.m., fifteen common Books 
passed, flying E.N.E., fresh N.E. breeze; 5th, same hour, mod. 
gale E. by N., overcast, misty and rainy, twelve going E.S.E.; 
10th, 11 a.m., fresh E.N.E. breeze, two passed S. by E. At 
Bull Point, Oct. 12th, 7 a.m., fresh E. breeze, two dozen Black 
Crows, old and young, seen flying W., before fresh E. breeze; 
only record of a W. direction of flight. The next occurrence 
dates Nov. 1st and 3rd, 9 a.m., when, at Nash, large flights, with 
Starlings, passed overland. We next hear, on 13th, of similar 
flights flying overland at noon ; a fresh W. gale, mist and 
showers. From the low station (only) we have like returns on 
20th, 24th, 25th, and 28th, 29th, 30th, between 9 a.m. and 
noon, winds various, clouds or mist. There are no returns from 
any other station. At the same station, Dec. 1st to 10th, 9 a.m., 
mod. breezes, more or less W., overcast and misty, like flights 
overland. At Holyhead, Dec. 16th, 9 a.m., flights of Black Crows 
passed E. across the bay, against a strong E. breeze. On Dec. 
18th, from both stations at Nash, and on 20th, 23rd and 25th, 
from the low stations (9 a.m.), flights of Crows and Starlings are 
reported ; winds various, generally mist. On Dec. 25th, the high 
station reports such a flock passing S. at the same hour, fresh 
E. breeze, clear; and on 28th, 30th and 31st, same hour, with 
breezes from W.S.W., E. and N., overcast, showery or misty, 
flights of Crows and Starlings were seen from both stations. At 
N. Stack, Dec. 20th, 9.5 a.m., a flock passed, flying E., fresh 
N.W. breeze; 30th, 2.15 p.m., a flock flying S.E., fresh N.W. 
breeze. This is the latest return. Besides Caldy and Nash, in 
the Bristol Channel, the returns are from four stations off the 
coast, viz. : — Bull Point, N. Stack, Holj^head, and Morecambe 
Bay. The direction of flight is from E.N.E. through E. to S.E. 
At Nash the direction seems to vary greatly, but is mostly 
reported as being "overland." 

Common Wren, Troglodytes vulgaris. — At Scarweather, Aug. 



110 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

lOtli, one was found in the morning lying dead on deck, W.N.W. 
breeze. At Nash (W. or low), Sept. 8th, in the early 
morning, one struck; mod. N.E. breeze, clouds and mist. At 
Smalls, Sept. 14th, 1 a.m. to daylight, gentle E. breeze, over- 
cast, but clear horizon, a Wren, Starling and Larks struck ; and 
on 15th, about same time, gentle breeze, E.S.E. to S.E., Black- 
birds, Starlings, Thrushes, Greenfinches, and Wrens, a large 
number striking the glass, but very few the roof. 

Swallow, Hirundo rustica. — Earliest notice, Aug. 31st, from 
Caldy, as also the latest, Nov. 11th, "when Swallows disappeared." 
At Caldy, Aug. 31st, Swallows seen from 7 a.m. to 9 a.m., N.N.E. 
to N. wind, blue sky, but clouds ; Sept. 5th, mod. W.S.W. breeze, 
about twenty ; and on 17th, at noon, W. wind, a few noticed. At 
Nash (E. or high), Sept. 15th, large flocks passed E., a 
strong N. breeze and rain ; and, the note added, "not seen after 
this date"; 21st, 26tli and 30tli, Swallows are reported from 
Caldy, with various winds, not strong, and generally with clouds 
and mist. At Morecambe Bay, Sept. 24th, mod. W. breeze, 
cloudy, but clear, two dozen were seen flying S.E. At Caernarvon 
Bay, Sept. 25th, mod. S.W. breeze, clear, a flock flying S.W. At 
S. Bishop, Sept. 28th, light N.E. air, twenty were seen. In 
October we have only two dates. At Godrevy, Oct. 12th, 1 p.m., 
a small flock hovering about the island, fresh N.E. breeze, clear; 
and at Helwick, 4.30 p.m., fresh E.N.E. breeze, misty, a flock 
passed, flying from S.W. to N.E. At Caldy, Oct. 18th, Swallows 
seen. The eight stations reporting give each but a solitary 
instance, except Caldy. Five of the stations are off the coast ; 
the remaining three in the Bristol Channel. The direction of 
flight is not once reported from Caldy. When from the other 
stations reported it is S.E. or S.W., except at Helwick, N.E.; 
Oct. 12th, at 4.30 p.m. This w^ould be the course to the nearest 
land. 

Swift, Cijpselns miirarius. — At Elatholm, Sept. 15th, 10 a.m.. 
mod. W.N.W. breeze, clouds, but clear horizon, a large flight 
appeared ; on 16th, they disai?peared. 

Golden Plover, Charadriiis plnviaUs. — Earliest record Sept. 
5th, when, at Caldy, two Plovers were seen ; mod. AV.S.W. breeze. 
The next occurrence noted is at Scill}', Oct. 4th, Plovers and 
Lapwings; mod. E.S.E. gale, rain. At Nash (E. or high), 
Oct. 14th, fifteen or twenty ; 21st, a large flock passed W. ; 



WEST COAST OF ENGLAND. Ill 

Nov. 20th, 10 p.m., six flew round the Hght several times. We 
have no further record till from both stations at Nash, Jan. 3rd, 
several were observed flying W. ; 10th, from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m., 
gentle N.E. breeze and mist, flocks of Plovers and Peewits, 
overland, passed S.W. Also, at Scilly, 4 p.m.. Plovers and Lap- 
wings ; and on 11th, calm and misty, flocks of Peewits and 
Starlings passed N.W. At Milford (Low) a quantity of Plovers, 
Larks and Starlings arrived, and remained all day. From 
Bardsey we hear that, on Feb. 11th, flocks of four or five Golden 
Plovers were seen flying about the Island; fresh N.E. gale. 
Except at Nash, Nov. 20th, and Scilly, Jan. 10th, these 
occurrences were all noticed from 8 a.m. to 11 a.m., and on 
every occasion with mist or rain, and with light or gentle 
E. breeze (except at Caldy, W.S.W.). The direction of flight, 
recorded only from Nash (E. or high), is W., except on 
Jan. 10th, S.W., and 11th, N.W. 

Lapwing, Vanellus cristatus. — Earliest notice at Sevenstones, 
Aug. 26th, 10 a.m., fifty were seen flying to S.W., light N.W. 
breeze, haze. The next is dated at Scilly, Oct. 4th, Lapwings 
and Plovers were seen at noon, a mod. E.S.E. gale, rain. We 
next hear from Caldy, Nov. 3rd, w^hen one was seen flying near the 
light; a strong E. breeze, mist. Another space of time, and at 
Nash, Nov. 21st (E. or high), 8 a.m., a large flock is seen 
overland, mod. E. breeze ; and at Burnham, 8 a.m., large flocks 
of Peewits were noticed flying from N., light N. breeze, mist. We 
do not again hear till Dec. 20th, when, at Lundy, a number of 
Lapwings were seen at 9 a.m., mod. E.N.E. breeze; and the 
other Lundy station reports, "about thirty came on the island 
during the night." Again, on the 30th, Mr. Parsons notes a flock 
came on the island the night previous. At Skerries, Dec. 29th, 
light S.E. breeze, misty, rain, a few Lapwings about all night. 
This is the only record from a station further N. than Bristol 
Channel. At Nash (E. or high), Jan. 3rd, gentle E. breeze, 
mist, a large flock of Peewits passed W. ; 6th, a similar flock, 
N.W. ; 10th, during the day misty, light N.E. breeze, flocks of 
Peewits, with Plovers, passed overland S.W. ; and on 11th, at 
10 a.m., misty and calm, flocks, with Starlings, passed N.W. At 
Scilly, same day, 4 p.m., Lapwings and Plovers were seen. At 
Sevenstones, Jan. 11th, two large flocks passed W. ; a light 
W.N.W. breeze, hazy. At Godrevy, Jan. 14th, we first hear of a 



112 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

gi-eat number seen during the day, with Starlings, Thrushes, &c. ; 
fresh E.S.E. breeze, clear, frost, and a little snow on the ground. 
Of the nine stations reporting, Nash has the most instances ; 
the greater numbers occur in January. The direction of flight 
when noticed, from N.W. through W. to S.W., the wind, except at 
Sevenstones, being from N.E. and E.S.E., but more generally E. ; 
force, mostly two to five. 

Sanderling, Calidris arenaria. — At Godrevy, Sept. 10th, 
11.30 p.m., two were killed ; light S.W. breeze, clear horizon. 

Oystercatcher, Hcematopus ostralcgus. — At Air, Aug. 6th, a 
large quantity seen about 1 p.m., gentle E.S.E. breeze, mist; 
Oct. 4th, a large quantity flying E. throughout the day, light 
S.E. breeze, mist; Oct. '29th, 10.30 a.m., with mod. N. gale, 
clear, a similar flight E. From Bideford, Sept. 1st, we have the 
following record: — "Hundreds of Sea-pies, Common Gulls, 
Curlews, and a few Shags, visit the mussel-beds all the winter, 
being seen every day and night from half-ebb to half-flood, 
coming from N.W. in all weather." 

Heron, Ardea cinerea. — From Helwick only have we any 
record, Sept. 26th, 6 a.m.: "A flock flying from S. to N.W." ; 
cloudy, but clear horizon, with light W. breeze. 

Bittern, Botaurus stellaris. — Of this now rare bird we have 
a solitary instance. At Godrevy, Jan. 14th, two were seen 
during the day (with numbers of Lapwings, Starlings, and 
Thrushes) ; may they live long and be happy ! 

Curlew and Stint, Xumenias arquata and Tringa (sp. ?). — At 
Air, earliest date Aug. 9th, 10 p.m., clear and calm, a large quantity 
passed ; and Godrevy, Jan. 11th, the latest. At Noon, Aug. 14th, 
three were seen at Bishop Rock. At Bideford, Sept. 1st, some 
seen, and thereafter daily, with hundreds of Sea-pies and Gulls, 
from N.W. At Usk, Sept. 8th, we hear of their appearance, when 
through the day they were seen in great numbers with Gulls, E. 
and N.E. breezes ; 10th, mod. S. breeze, they were observed through 
the day with Gulls and "Pearls" {Tringa ! minuta) in great 
numbers; 17th, from 5 a.m. to 9 a.m., W.N.W. to N.W., two; 
they appeared in very large flocks ; and from Sept. 24th, to 
Oct. 8th. At Morecambe Bay, Sept. 12th, 6.30 p.m., one was 
seen flying S. against a moderate breeze. At Nash, Sept. loth, 
9 a.m., two passed N.E., strong N. breeze and showers; 18th, 
6 p.m., two passed N.W., before a mod. N.W. gale, showery 



WEST COAST OF ENGLAND 113 

(these are noticed from both stations). At Skerries, Sept. 2Gtb, 
light S.W. breeze, Curlews were seen at sunrise. At Air, Oct. 4th, 
a large quantity going E. all day; mist}^ Through November 
and December we hear from Usk of large flocks (with numbers of 
Stints). At Skerries, Dec. 4th, 1 a.m., light S. air, misty and 
rain. Curlews were seen with Blackbirds and Snipes ; 20th, a few 
all day, mod. W.S.W. breeze, fine; 29th, light S.E. breeze, mist 
and rain, a few all night. At Nash, also on 29th, 4 p.m., four 
passed W., mod. N. breeze, drizzle. The only record subsequent 
to this is from Godrevy, Jan. 11th, 9 a.m., when four were seen 
on the island, light E.S.E. breeze and mist; and Mr. Trahair 
adds, "they frequent the shore after the breeding-season." Most 
of the instances were noticed in the daytime ; the winds various ; 
but in the Bristol Channel, where recorded (Nash and Usk), from 
N. to W.N.W., force, four to six; while off the coast (Morecambe, 
Air, and Skerries), E.S.E. through S. to W.S.W., and light. 

Woodcock, Scoloixix rusticola. — At Lundy, Nov. 19th, 10 a.m., 
from both stations, four Woodcocks and three Snipes were seen, 
mod. N.E. breeze, clear; and Mr. Parsons adds, "one has been 
seen once or twice since." At Scilly, Oct. 11th, 8.30 a.m., fi-esh 
E.S.E. breeze. Woodcocks and Starlings appeared. At Nash 
(E. or high), Jan. 14th, at noon, two passed W., with five Wild 
Geese, before a mod. E. breeze, mist. At Bardsey, Jan. 20th, 
gentle E. breeze, with snow; one struck. 

Snipe, Scolopax gallinago, — At Nash (E. or high), Oct. 
24th, 9 a.m., two were seen flying W. ; gentle N.E. breeze, misty. 
From the two stations at Lundy, Nov. 19th, three Snipes and 
four Woodcocks were seen. At Skerries, Dec. 4th, 1 a.m., light 
S. air, misty and rain. Snipes and Blackbirds were seen, and a 
few killed. 

Corn Crake, Crex pratensis. — At Burnham, Aug. 14th, at mid- 
night, a Land Bail was killed ; light N. breeze, clear horizon. 

Water Rail, Rallus aquaticus. — At Smalls, Oct. 15th, one 
was seen on the rock. 

Wild Goose, Anser ?^ palustris. — At Scilly, Sept. 26th, 7 a.m., 
calm and cloud}^, nineteen were seen. We hear no more till 
Nov. 3rd, when, at Helwick, 11 a.m., one was seen passing from 
S. to N., mod. E.N.E. breeze; and on Nov. 6th, about the same 
hour, a flock passed from S.W. to N.E., mod. N.W. breeze, 
drizzly rain and showers. At Morecambe Bay, Nov. 23rd, 

Q 



114 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

9.30 a.m., two flying S.E., strong S. breeze. At Scarweather, 
Nov. lOtli, 4 p.m., fresh N.W. by W. breeze, fom* were seen. 
There is no return for December. At Nash (E. or high), Jan. 
2nd, 9.30 a.m., two passed W. ; and on 14th, at noon, five 
and two Woodcocks passed W., mod. E. breeze. At Hartland 
Point, Jan. 5th, a few were seen flying E. At Sevenstones, Jan. 
11th, 4.15 p.m., hght N.N.W. breeze, haze, several flocks passed, 
flying to westward. 

Shieldrake, Tadorna vulpanser. — At Air, March 21st, 1880, 
at sunrise, mod. S.E. breeze, clear, about forty-five pairs. Mr. 
Aveson adds, "they arrive annually for breeding." 

Wild Duck, Anas hoschas, Oidemia nigra. — Eeturns from 
eleven stations. In some few instances the ''Black Duck," pro- 
bably the Common Scoter, is separately distinguished, viz. : — 
At Morecambe Bay, Sept. 5th, 6.15 a.m., five flying W., mod. 
W.S.W. breeze, mist ; Oct. 1st, 9 a.m., light W. air, gloomy, 
misty, six flying W.S.W. At Scarweather, Sept. 20th, 6 p.m., 
fresh N.W. by N. breeze, four were seen; Nov. 25th, 3 p.m., 
mod. W. gale, two passed up N.E.; 30th, 10 a.m., gentle S. 
breeze, four were seen. At Burnham, Dec. 21st, 9 a.m., light 
N.N.W. breeze, flocks of the Black Surf Duck were seen on the 
water. In the other cases the species are not distinguished. 
The earliest date given is Sept. 18th, when, at Morecambe Bay, 
3 p.m., seven Wild Ducks passed E., strong W.N.W. breeze; 
27th, 7 a.m., six passed N. ; 29th, same hour, three passed W., 
calm and fog. At Caernarvon, Oct. 6th, strong E.N.E. breeze. 
Wild Ducks passed N.N.E. At Godrevy, Oct. 8th, fresh E. 
breeze, clear, two flocks of Ducks and Mallards passed W. during 
the day ; 10th, 7.15 a.m., wind from same quarter, one flock, 
S.W. At Nash (E. or high), Oct. 26th, 7 a.m., fresh E. 
breeze, two passed W". Throughout November the notices are 
more frequent. At Caernarvon, Nov. 1st, 10.40 p.m., fresh N.W. 
breeze, hazy, one was killed. At Morecambe Bay, 2nd, 7 a.m., 
one passed S.E. against a mod. S.E. breeze; slight fog. At 
Helwick, 4th, 8 a.m., gentle N.E. breeze, two flocks passed from 
S.W. to N.E. ; 8th, about same hour, one Wild Duck passed to 
S.W., mod. N.E. and N. breeze. At Morecambe Bay, 9th, same 
horn-, strong W. by S. breeze, nine passed going N. ; 18th, same 
hour, fresh E. by N. breeze, four going S. From Lundy, we 
hear on 18th, 7 and 8 a.m., three Wild Ducks (one male and two 



WEST COAST OF ENGLAND. 115 

females) seen with Teal. At Smalls, 19th, fresh E.N.E. breeze, 
two Grey Ducks from N.W. to S.E. At Helwick, 22ncl, 2 p.m., 
fresh S.E. breeze, clouds and mist, a flock passed from S.E. 
to N., fresh S.E. breeze, clouds and mist; Dec. 4th, strong 
S.W. breeze, twenty passed S.E.; 17th, from Holyhead Break- 
water, hundreds of Wild Ducks were seen in the bay during 
the day. . At Godrevy, same day, two flocks of Ducks and 
Mallards passed S.W. and W. before a fresh E.N.E. gale, 
which moderated and veered round to N.N.E. ; Jan. 6th, 
10.30 a.m., strong E. breeze, mist, a flock passed W. At Nash, 
Jan. 2nd, large flocks passed S.W. ; 13th, 4 p.m., and 14th, 
8 a.m., gentle E.N.E. breeze, mist, a flock passed W. At Milford, 
11th, five or six Ducks passed, going more inland. At Bardsey, 
13th, scattered flocks of Wild Ducks, about seven in number, 
crossing from mainland, N.N.E. wind, four; March 18th, 1881, 1.30 
a.m., S.S.W. wind, four, three Ducks and one Drake Widgeons 
are reported. Thus in September we hear only from Morcambe 
Bay, and one instance of Black Ducks from Scarweather. In 
October the occurrences are more frequent and general, and the 
numbers greater ; the direction of flight, except at Caernarvon 
Bay on the 6th, being W. or S.W., and the wind E. In November 
the most instances are recorded, but the numbers of individuals 
appear smaller; the direction of flight is N.E., S.E., N., or S., 
the winds varying, but more generally N.E., E., or S.E. In 
December we have two dates : the 4th, when twenty passed at 
Scarweather ; 17th, at Godrevy, two flocks were seen ; and at 
Holyhead, hundreds in the bay. In January we hear from 
Godrevy, Nash, Milford and Bardsey of flocks passing. The 
direction of flight in December and January is generally S.W. or 
W., in calm, or E. or E.N.E. breezes. The occurrences (except 
the last) are all noticed from 7 a.m. to 4 p.m., and most about 
. 8 a.m. In almost every instance it is misty, foggy, or gloomy. 

Teal, Anas crecca. — At Godrevy, Sept. 27th, 10.15 a.m., 
light S.S.W. breeze, mist, a flock flying N.E. ; Oct. 21st, 2 p.m., 
a flock flying E. against a mod. E. breeze. At Lundy, Nov. 18th, 
one male and two females are reported from both stations ; mod. 
E. breeze, clear. 

Guillemot and Kazorbill, Uria troile and Alca torda, — We 
hear from Lundy that, on Nov. 21st, numbers of Guillemots and 
Kazorbills came in during the night, and remained during the 



116 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

day ; and on the 25tli a great many came in dming the night, 
and left in the morning. On Dec. 25th we have the same retm-n 
as on Nov. 21st ; and Dec. 28th, 10 a.m., strong W.S.W. hreeze, 
a great many came during the night. At Godrevy they are 
reported to he generally seen about. 

Cormorant, Phalacrocorax. — At Bull Point, Dec. 21st, light 
S.S.W. breeze, one (species not identified) flying W., and low to 
the water. Mr. Roberts reports that, at Bideford, '' a few Shags 
visit to feed on the mussel-beds all the winter"; and, at 
Godrevy, Mr. Trahair says, "the Cormorant, or Shag and Large 
Gull(?), resort all the year round." At Trevore Head they are 
reported as residents of the cliffs all the year round. 

Gannet, Sida hassana. — At Morecambe Bay, earliest notice 
Aug. 26th, one flying N.N.W. before a mod. E.S.E. breeze. At 
S. Stack, during August and September, a great many were seen 
passing from N.E. to S.W. At Caernarvon Bay, Sept. 9th, fresh 
S.E. breeze, two flying S. ; and on 11th, mod. W. by S. breeze, 
two flying S. ; 25th, one flying W.S.W., mod. S.W. breeze : these 
occurrences noted about 10 a.m. in clear w^eather. At Helwick, 
Sept. 19th, 6.30 a.m., one male flying W., fresh W.N.W. breeze. 
At Sevenstones, Sept. 28th, light E.S.E. breeze, gloomy, eight, 
mixed, flying to N.E. At Helwick, Oct. 4th, 6.40 a.m., fresh 
E.S.E. breeze, gloomy, two flying S. to N.E. No further 
occurrences are reported till Nov. 20th, when, at Scarweather, 
two passed up S.E., mod. N.E. breeze; and on 21st, with S.E. 
breeze, four passed S.E.; 27th, strong W. breeze, seven passed 
in different directions ; Dec. 6th, two passed N.E., mod. W.N.W. 
breeze ; 12th, four N.E., a fresh W.N.W. breeze. These instances 
all occurred in the daytime. Mr. Trahair reports that, at 
Godrevy, " from middle of December to middle of January 
several about, not flying in any particular direction"; and, 
again, " a great number of sprats about, — the Gannets appear to 
be after them, — more so than on the coast, through the influence 
of the weather." 

Tern, Sterna (? sp.). — At Air, Oct. 12th, a large quantity of 
Sea Swallows seen, mod. N.E. breeze, gloomy, clear; the same 
on Oct. 12th, gentle E. breeze. 

Gull, Lams argentatus, L. caniis, L. triclactylus. — From 
S. Stackwe hear that, on Aug. 10th, Gulls left after breeding. At 
Bideford, Sept. 1st, hundreds of common Gulls are reported as 



WEST COAST OF ENGLAND. 117 

coming every day (presumably from this date) from N.W., with 
Sea-pies and Curlews, from half-ebb to . half- flow. At Bishop 
Kock, Sept. 6tli, in calm weather and clear, a "Mackerel Bird" 
(? young Kittiwake) struck (11 p.m.), but was not killed; and on 
7th, 1.30 a.m., another struck. At Usk, from Sept. 7th to 
Oct. 8th, large numbers of Gulls (on one occasion three varieties) 
seen, with Curlews and Stints. At Caldy, Sept. 9th, Grey Gulls 
seen ; 10th, about a hundred Gulls, with the note, " Bred on the 
island, and constantly passing." At N. Stack, Sept. 11th, 
fourteen (six males and eight females) flying S., mod. S.W. 
breeze. At Nash, Sept. 13th and 20th, 6 p.m., from both 
stations large flocks were seen passing W., with fresh W. and 
W.N.W. breeze. At N. Stack, Sept. 17th, twenty-five (thirteen 
males and twelve females) are reported as flying N.E., before a 
strong S.W. breeze ; 25th, a flock fljdng S., mod. S.W. breeze. 
At Caldy, Sept. 29th, 10 p.m., one W^hite Gull appeared; fog and 
light S.E. breeze. Except Usk, the only notices in October are 
from Nash, where at both stations, on five or six occasions, flights 
of Gulls and young Gulls were seen passing N. or N.W. ; wind 
various, but more or less easterly. At Caernarvon Bay, Sept. 30th, 
4.15 p.m., a flock passed E.S.E., with strong S.W. by W. breeze. 
We have no return in November. In December one occurrence 
alone is noted: — At Nash (E. or high), Dec. 16th, 10 a.m., 
four passed N., fresh E.N.E. breeze; Jan. 9th, a small flock of 
Gulls passed N. At Bull Point, Jan. 11th, 4 p.m., twenty-six 
Grey Gulls passed, flying S.W., rather high ; mod. N.W. breeze, 
cloudy, squally, and snowy. At St. Bees, Mr. Pizey, speaking of 
the scarcity of birds, says, "Even the Common Gull only makes 
an appearance just before heavy weather, or in following the 
plough, and then in but small numbers." From Godrevy Mr. 
Trahair reports, "Very few Skua Gulls (Lestris) observed this 
season." 

Peteel, TJialassidroma pelagiea. — At Godrevy, Sept. 28th, 
9 p.m., one struck, fog, light S. breeze ; Oct. 4th, from 1 to 2 a.m., 
mod. E.N.E. breeze, one was seen with a Lark and Wrens. Mr. 
Trahair adds, "Breeds on the island, most plentiful in July; 
never seen in daytime, except among loose stones, where they 
breed." 

*DoTTEREL, Cliaradrius morinellus. — Eeported to be seen at 
Smalls, every day from October to January, with various Gulls. 



118 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

Besides the above, we have a few instances of birds unknown, 
of which, perhaps, the most puzzHng is reported from Longships, 
Sei^t. 8th, midnight, mod. S.S.E. gale, misty, with showers, " one 
strange bird, the shape and size of a Starhng, pattern and hue 
of a Partridge, with its legs covered over with stiff feathers." At 
Godrevy, Oct. 4th, two foreign Wrens (? Goldcrests) killed, with 
Lark and Petrel. At Skerries, Oct. 13th, 16th and 17th, flocks 
of small birds passed during the day, flying E. At Smalls, 
Oct. 2Gth, before sunrise, birds unknown passed ; Nov. 3rd, 
before sunrise, continuous flocks were flying round the light, 
three struck and fell overboard, mod. E. breeze, cloudy, but 
clear horizon. At N. Stack, Nov. 12th, 7.35 a.m., fresh W. 
breeze, cloudy, two flocks of birds, name unknown, flying N.E. ; 
26th, 3 p.m., mod. S.W. gale, drizzling rain, fifty grey birds 
passed, also flying N.E. On Jan. 16th, we hear from Longships, 
that at 8.15 a.m., gentle W. breeze, cloudy, but clear horizon, 
*' flocks of small birds were noticed at sunrise passing westward, 
leaving the land, upon a change of weather from a sharp frost 
and snow, and a change of wind from E. to W." 

The stations are not all equally favourably situated for 
observing, and a general scarcity of birds is reported from the 
following : — St. Bees, Mr. Pizey writes that, for over five years 
that he has been there, he has remarked "the extreme scarcity 

of birds of any sort As for flocks of birds I have never 

witnessed them here, an occasional Kobin, Blackbird or Thrush 

being all the variety we see Common Sparrows few in 

number." Mr. G. Knott says, " very few birds are seen at Bull 
Point." From Flatholm and Usk we hear "very few land-birds 
are seen, and at the former only Gulls, and they in the three 
winter months alone." " The lighthouse at Avon is so close to 
the docks and village that no birds come to the light " ; and that 
at Burnham, having "only four panes facing west, does not attract 
many birds." " The land-birds to be seen in the immediate 
neighbourhood of Trevose Head are very scarce." From Wolf 
Rock Mr. Crask writes, "Hardly ever any birds come nigh us 
but Gulls, which come by thousands after fish ; the only others 
ever seen being Starlings, and these few and far between." 

Some stations report a marked scarcity during the past, in 
comparison with other years. Thus, from Holyhead, Mr. 
Prichard writes, "Being a very mild winter have not seen 



^VEST COAST' OF ENGLAND. 119 

an3^thing of note ; not a bird striking this winter." At Bardsey 
the inhabitants say they " never observed so few birds before ; " 
and Mr. Bowen suggests that "the fog-horn sounding may 
prevent birds striking." With respect to this we hear from 
Skerries that " few birds have been seen since they had a 
fog-horn." At Morecambe, Caernarvon, and other stations 
where there are fog signals, however, we hear of birds striking 
or killed. At St. Judwalls the entire absence of Starlings for 
the whole winter was remarked. (Pigeons were seen here from 
second week in May to first week in August.) From Nash it is 
reported that " during November and December sea-birds were 
very scarce, and all birds singularly scarce at latter end of 
October, and extremely so during the nights both of September 
and October ; and, again, all sea- and land-birds have been more 
scarce during the nights of the present winter than ever I 
recollect" (John Eichards). Mr. Nicholas attributes it to the 
very mild winter. From Smalls we hear that during December 
no birds were seen about the lighthouse. From Hartland Point 
Mr. Griffiths writes, that ''for twenty-five years he had always 
seen and caught birds, but not this year ; nor have any struck, 
as in other years." At Burnham (Aug. 14th) and at Usk (Sep- 
tember) a Land Bail only bird killed. 

Concerning the circumstances under which birds strike, the 
returns bear out the conclusions expressed in last year's report, 
that dark or cloudy nights, with fog, haze or rain, are most 
hazardous. Three or fom' exceptional instances are recorded of 
striking in daylight. October and November appear to be the 
most dangerous months, and South Bishop the most deadly 
station. Mr. T. Bowen writes, from Bardsey, that "birds strike 
in general u'ith the wind; without, very rare exception." Mr. 
Crask, from Wolf Eock, in reply to a question on which side 
they strike, writes, " when they strike the lantern it is generally 
N.W." Other stations have not noticed. 

Of the species reported on, the Starling has received by far 
the most notice ; and next come Larks, Crows, Wild Ducks, 
Gulls, Thrushes, &c. Possibly some of the notices may refer to 
local migrations, or movements from one feeding-ground to 
another. 

The notices of the AnaticlcE are all in the daytime. The 
direction of their flight (seldom recorded) is, sometimes, directly 



120 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

N. and S. ; but, to judge merely from the few recorded instances, 
the prevaiHng dh-ection at the following stations is N. or north- 
easterly — towards the land : Caernarvon, Helwick, and Scar- 
weather. At Smalls it appears to be, towards the Bristol Channel, 
S.E. At Nash, Godrevy and Sevenstones it is W. ; while at 
Morecambe Bay it varies very greatly. The lines followed by the 
Insessores are difficult — with data supplied by one year only — to 
make out, but seem to be towards the mainland or along the 
coast. The following are the chief instances where the direction 
is reported as being from the land : — South Stack, Oct. 29th, 
30th, 31st, Starlings flying N.W. ; Bull Point, Oct. 13th, Black 
Crows flying W. ; South Bishop, Nov. 2nd, Blackbirds, Larks, 
StarHngs and Thrushes flying N.W. ; Scilly, Oct. 13th, Fieldfares 
flying ^Y. ; and at Wolf Rock, Jan. 16th, and Sevenstones, Jan. 
11th, two large flocks of Lapwings fl3'ing W. 

The returns seem to support the conclusion expressed in last 
year's report as to birds preferring to migrate with a "beam" 
wind, or even a point or two abaft of beam. 



Erratum. — Page 65^ line 3, /or N.E., read N.W. 



WKST, NKWMAN AND CO., PRINTERS, 54, HATTON GARDEN, LONDON, E.G. 



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